Article

Association between cigarette smoking and anxiety disorders during adolescence and early adulthood.

Box 60, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1051 Riverside Dr, New York, NY 10032, USA.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 30.39). 11/2000; 284(18):2348-51.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cigarette smoking is associated with some anxiety disorders, but the direction of the association between smoking and specific anxiety disorders has not been determined.
To investigate the longitudinal association between cigarette smoking and anxiety disorders among adolescents and young adults.
The Children in the Community Study, a prospective longitudinal investigation.
Community-based sample of 688 youths (51% female) from upstate New York interviewed in the years 1985-1986, at a mean age of 16 years, and in the years 1991-1993, at a mean age of 22 years.
Participant cigarette smoking and psychiatric disorders in adolescence and early adulthood, measured by age-appropriate versions of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children.
Heavy cigarette smoking (>/=20 cigarettes/d) during adolescence was associated with higher risk of agoraphobia (10.3% vs 1.8%; odds ratio [OR], 6.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53-30.17), generalized anxiety disorder (20.5% vs 3.71%; OR, 5.53; 95% CI, 1.84-16.66), and panic disorder (7.7% vs 0.6%; OR, 15.58; 95% CI, 2.31-105.14) during early adulthood after controlling for age, sex, difficult childhood temperament; alcohol and drug use, anxiety, and depressive disorders during adolescence; and parental smoking, educational level, and psychopathology. Anxiety disorders during adolescence were not significantly associated with chronic cigarette smoking during early adulthood. Fourteen percent and 15% of participants with and without anxiety during adolescence, respectively, smoked at least 20 cigarettes per day during early adulthood (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.36-2.14).
Our results suggest that cigarette smoking may increase risk of certain anxiety disorders during late adolescence and early adulthood. JAMA. 2000;284:2348-2351.

Full-text

Available from: Daniel S Pine, Mar 31, 2015
2 Bookmarks
 · 
152 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Smoking is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. More than 58,000 people die prematurely in Spain due to tobacco use. Psychology offers effective psychological treatments for tobacco dependence, but these treatments are not always used and they are not widely known about. In this article, the effectiveness of psychological treatment is analysed together with various barriers that impede its greater use, especially due to the competition with pharmaceutical products and the undervaluation of the psychological treatment by different sectors, in the same way that happens with other disorders (e.g., depression). We propose a number of strategies to improve the impact of our treatments and to make them more visible, because psychological treatment is a first line treatment for smokers. Key words: Tobacco, Smoking, Psychological treatment, Efficacy.
    Papeles del Psicologo 03/2015; 35(3):161-168.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The heterogeneity of serious emotional disturbance has been thoroughly documented among adolescents with nationally representative data derived from structured interviews, although use of these interviews may not be feasible within the context of brief and self-administered school surveys. This study seeks to identify distinct subtypes of serious emotional disturbance in a large school-based sample. Methods: A total of 108,736 students fully completed the K6 scale that was included on the 2012 Kentucky Incentives for Prevention Survey. Latent class analysis was used to derive subtypes of serious emotional disturbance among students receiving a positive screen (n = 15,147). To determine significant predictors of class membership, adjusted rate ratios and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated using multinomial logistic regression. Results: A four-class model was the most parsimonious, with four distinct subtypes emerging that varied by both symptom type and severity: comorbid moderate severity, comorbid high severity, anxious moderate severity, and depressed high severity. Age, gender, race/ethnicity, family structure, substance use, antisocial behavior, role impairments, and peer victimization were significant predictors of class membership, although the magnitude of these effects was stronger for the two high severity groups. Conclusions: Our results suggest heterogeneity of serious emotional disturbance by both symptom type and severity. Prevention programs may benefit by shifting focus from specific disorders to the core features of serious emotional disturbance, including psychological distress, high comorbidity, and role impairments.
    Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00127-015-1017-2 · 2.58 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mental health and smoking have been receiving increasing attention in adolescents all over the world. Although some studies have assessed the independent association of active/passive smoking with mental health, joint association of active and passive smoking with mental health remains unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the joint association of smoking status (active and passive smoking) with psychiatric distress and violent behaviors in Iranian children and adolescents. In this national survey, 13,486 students, aged 6-18 years, living in rural and urban areas of 30 provinces of Iran were selected via multistage, cluster sampling method. Psychiatric distress (including worthless, angriness, worrying, insomnia, confusion, depression, and anxiety), violence behaviors (including bullying, victim, and physical fight), and smoking status (nonsmoker, only passive smoker, only active smoker, and active and passive smoker) were assessed. The questionnaire was prepared based on the World Health Organization Global School-based Student Health Survey (WHO-GSHS). Data were analyzed by the Stata package. Psychiatric distress and violent behaviors had linearly positive association with smoking status (p trend < 0.001). Compared to "nonsmoker" group, participants who were exposed to passive smoking besides active tobacco use were at increased risk of having angriness (odds ratio (OR) 2.55, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.86-3.48), worrying (OR 1.66, 95 % CI 1.24-2.20), and anxiety (OR 1.99, 95 % CI 1.52-2.61) and victim (OR 1.77, 95 % CI 1.34-2.33) and bully behaviors (OR 3.08, 95 % CI 2.33-4.07). The current findings suggest that active and passive tobacco smoking has synergistic effect on psychiatric distress. Since majority of smokers with psychiatric distress do not receive mental health services or counseling on smoking, strategies to address mental health problems and smoking prevention should be included as a part of school health services.
    International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12529-015-9462-6 · 2.63 Impact Factor