"Despite the identification of MRI changes specific for MSA and PSP, the neuroimaging differentiation of patients with atypical parkinsonism is still challenging. As also shown in our groups of parkinsonian patients, MR findings often misclassify patients already with a clinical diagnosis of PSP or MSA (Schrag et al., 2000), and both conventional imaging (Schrag et al., 2000) and DWI (Seppi et al., 2003) may show overlapping abnormalities in MSA and PSP patients. rADC values and diffusion tensor trace values [Trace(D)] have been found to be increased in the putamen of MSA-P patients (Schocke et al., 2002, 2004) and in the putamen, caudate and pallidus of PSP patients (Seppi et al., 2003) compared with Parkinson's disease patients. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical differentiation of parkinsonian syndromes such as the Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) from Parkinson's disease is difficult in the early stage of the disease. In order to identify objective markers for differential diagnosis, we studied these three groups of patients with diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI). Sixteen MSA-P patients, 16 with PSP, 16 with Parkinson's disease and 15 healthy volunteers were studied. Regional apparent diffusion coefficients (rADC) were determined in different brain regions including basal ganglia, thalamus, white matter, pons and middle cerebellar peduncles (MCPs). rADC calculated in the MCP completely differentiated MSA-P patients (median: 0.93 x 10(-3) mm2/s) from PSP patients (median: 0.82 x 10(-3) mm2/s, P < 0.001), Parkinson's disease patients (median: 0.79 x 10(-3) mm2/s, P < 0.001) and healthy volunteers (median: 0.81 x 10(-3) mm2/s, P < 0.001). Other regions considered showed an overlapping among groups. DWI discriminates MSA-P from PSP and Parkinson's disease and healthy volunteers on the basis of MCP rADC values. These in vivo results confirm the pathological findings that the majority of MSA-P patients have moderate or severe degenerative changes not only in the nigrostriatal but also in the olivopontocerebellar systems. Our findings indicate that, in order to substantially contribute to the in vivo differential diagnosis of MSA-P, PSP and Parkinson's disease, rADC measurements should not be limited to the basal ganglia but should also include the MCP.
"However, so far, imaging studies have been largely cross sectional. Some have been observational and subjective (Stern et al., 1989), others have employed quantitative linear measurements (Schrag et al., 2000; Asato et al., 2000). Most recently, volumetric region of interest (ROI) studies, voxel-based morphometry and ratios of regional area measurements, have been used to demonstrate structural differences between these diseases (Cordato et al., 2002; Brenneis et al., 2003; Groschel et al., 2004; Cordato et al., 2005; Oba et al., 2005; Paviour et al., 2005b). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rate of brain atrophy and its relationship to clinical disease progression in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) is not clear. Twenty-four patients with PSP, 11 with MSA-P (Parkinsonian variant), 12 with Parkinson's disease, and 18 healthy control subjects were recruited for serial MRI scans, clinical assessments and formal neuropsychological evaluations in order to measure brain atrophy during life and its association with disease progression in PSP and MSA-P. Serial scans were registered and rates of whole brain atrophy calculated from the brain-boundary shift integral. Regional rates of atrophy were calculated in the brainstem (midbrain and pons), the cerebellum, the lateral and third ventricles as well as frontal and posterior inferior brain regions, by locally registering to a region of interest in order to derive a local boundary shift integral (BSI). 82% of recruited subjects completed serial MRI scans (17 PSP, 9 MSA-P, 9 Parkinson's disease patients and 18 healthy controls). Mean (SD) annualized rates of whole-brain atrophy were greatest in PSP: 1.2% (1.0%), three times that in controls. Mean (SD) midbrain atrophy rates in PSP, 2.2% (1.5%), were seven times greater than in healthy controls. In MSA-P, atrophy rates were greatest in the pons: 4.5% (3.2%), over 20 times that in controls and three times the rate of pontine atrophy in PSP. Atrophy rates in Parkinson's disease were not significantly different from control rates of atrophy. Variability in the atrophy rates was lower when calculated using the BSI rather than manual measurements. Worsening motor deficit was associated with midbrain atrophy in PSP, and ponto-cerebellar atrophy in MSA-P. Worsening executive dysfunction was associated with increased rates of frontal atrophy in PSP. Cerebellar atrophy rates were better discriminators of MSA-P than cross-sectional volumes. We confirm that serial MRI can be applied to measure whole brain and regional atrophy rates in PSP and MSA-P. Regional rather than whole-brain atrophy rates better discriminate PSP and MSA-P from healthy controls. Clinico-radiological associations suggest these regional atrophy rates have potential as markers of disease progression in trials of novel therapies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Les démences représentent un problème de santé public majeur, notamment du fait du vieillissement des populations occidentales. Pourtant, le diagnostic étiologique de certitude d'un syndrome démentiel ne peut être obtenu que par l'analyse neuropathologique et/ou biochimique du tissu cérébral obtenu en post mortem. Les lésions cérébrales aboutissant au déclin cognitif ont des origines diverses (neurodégénératives, vasculaires, métaboliques...) et sont souvent associées. En analysant les données cliniques, neuropathologiques et biochimique issues de la cohorte autopsiques de patients déments suivis au Centre Mémoire de Ressources et de recherche du CHRU de Lille (127 cerveaux prélevés entre 1992 et 2009), nous avons étudié les corrélations entre l'expression clinique du syndrome démentiel et la nature des lésions cérébrales sous jacentes. Nous montrons que les fréquentes associations lésionnelles (lésions de maladie d'Alzheimer, de maladie à corps de Lewy, lésions vasculaires) ont des conséquences sur la pertinence du diagnostic étiologique du syndrome démentiel. Dans le domaine des dégénérescences lobaires frontotemporales (DLFT), nous avons étudié les corrélations clinicopathologiques de 18 patients ayant présenté des troubles inauguraux du langage ou de la parole. Nous avons pu établir des corrélations entre les syndromes cliniques et certaines protéinopathies (tau, TDP-43) associées aux DLFT. L'enquête génétique a permis de mettre en évidence une nouvelle mutation du gène de la progranuline chez un patient. L'analyse pluridisciplinaire des démences permet au clinicien de progresser dans la prédiction des lésions cérébrales du vivant du patient. Cette démarche s'avère indispensable dans l'optique du développement de traitements curatifs des démences neurodégénératives.
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