Growth arrest and cell death in the breast tumor cell in response to ionizing radiation and chemotherapeutic agents which induce DNA damage
ABSTRACT Breast tumor cells are relatively refractory to apoptosis in response to modalities which induce DNA damage such as ionizing radiation and the topoisomerase II inhibitor, adriamycin. Various factors which may modulate the apoptotic response to DNA damage include the p53 status of the cell, levels and activity of the Bax and Bcl-2 families of proteins, activation of NF-kappa B, relative levels of insulin like growth factor and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins, activation of MAP kinases and PI3/Akt kinases, (the absence of) ceramide generation and the CD95 (APO1/Fas) signaling pathway. Prolonged growth arrest associated with replicative senescence may represent an alternative and reciprocal response to DNA-damage induced apoptosis that is p53 and/or p21waf1/cip1 dependent while delayed apoptosis may occur in p53 mutant breast tumor cells which fail to maintain the growth-arrested state. Clearly, the absence of an immediate apoptotic response to DNA damage does not eliminate other avenues leading to cell death and loss of self-renewal capacity in the breast tumor cell. Nevertheless, prolonged growth arrest (even if ultimately succeeded by apoptotic or necrotic cell death) could provide an opportunity for subpopulations of breast tumor cells to recover proliferative capacity and to develop resistance to subsequent clinical intervention.
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- "On the other hand, there is proof that chemotherapy as ―induction therapy before radiotherapy‖ has no significant additive anti-tumor effects (Koukourakis et al., 1999). Breast tumors tend to resist and reoccur after the aforementioned treatments (Gewirtz, 2000). The exact nature and mechanisms of radiation responses of chemoresistant tumor cells remain obscure. "
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ABSTRACT: Ionizing radiation and the anthracycline antibiotic, Adriamycin, generally fail to promote a primary apoptotic response in experimental breast tumor cell lines. Similarly, the primary response of breast tumor cells to vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and vitamin D3 analogs such as EB 1089 is growth inhibition. Previous studies have demonstrated that pretreatment of MCF-7 breast tumor cells with vitamin D3 or EB 1089 can increase sensitivity to both Adriamycin and irradiation. Purpose: The capacity of the vitamin D3 analog, ILX 23-7553, to enhance the antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of Adriamycin or irradiation and to promote apoptosis in MCF-7 breast tumor cells was assessed in the present study. Results: Pretreatment of MCF-7 cells with ILX 23-7553 followed by Adriamycin or irradiation decreased viable cell numbers by 97% and 93%, respectively. Cell numbers were reduced by 56%, 74% and 75% by ILX 23-7553, Adriamycin and irradiation alone. Pretreatment with ILX 23-7553 also shifted the dose response curve for clonogenic survival, increasing sensitivity to Adriamycin 2.5-fold and sensitivity to radiation fourfold. In addition, ILX 23-7553 pretreatment conferred sensitivity to Adriamycin- or irradiation-induced DNA fragmentation and resulted in morphological changes indicative of apoptotic cell death in MCF-7 cells. Statistical analysis demonstrated that ILX 23-7553 interacts additively and not synergistically with both Adriamycin and irradiation. Conclusions: ILX 23-7553 enhances the effects of Adriamycin and irradiation in MCF-7 breast tumor cells by decreasing viable cell numbers, reducing clonogenic survival and inducing apoptotic cell death. Current studies are focused on elucidating the mechanisms underlying the induction of apoptosis as well as understanding the nature of the interactions between ILX 23-7553 and Adriamycin or irradiation.Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 01/2001; 47(5):429-436. DOI:10.1007/s002800000251 · 2.57 Impact Factor
- Cell Preservation Technology 05/2002; 1(1):63-80. DOI:10.1089/15383440260073301 · 1.41 Impact Factor