The benefit of houseofficer education on proper medication dose calculation and ordering.
ABSTRACT Drug dosing errors commonly cause morbidity and mortality. This prospective controlled study was performed to determine: 1) residents' understanding of drug dose calculations and ordering; and 2) the short-term effect of a brief educational intervention on the skills required to properly calculate dosages and order medications.
The study was conducted at an urban public hospital with a four-year emergency medicine (EM) residency program. The EM residents served as the study group and were unaware of the study design. A written, eight-question test (T1) with clinical situations and factual questions was administered. Immediately following the test, correct answers were discussed for 30 minutes. Key concepts were emphasized. Six weeks later, a repeat test (T2a) with a similar format was administered to the study group. The same test (T2b) was simultaneously administered to a control group, residents of similar training who did not take T1, in order to determine test equivalency (T1 vs T2). Tests were graded using explicit criteria by a single investigator blinded to the order of administration.
Twenty residents completed both tests T1 and T2a. Their mean scores were 48% and 70%, respectively (p < 0.001, paired t-test). The control group of ten residents had a mean score of 49% (T2b), similar to the study group's scores on T1 (T1 vs T2b, p = 0.40, unpaired t-test).
Emergency medicine residents require specific training in calculating and executing drug ordering. A brief educational intervention significantly improved short-term performance when retested six weeks later. Long-term retention is unknown.
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ABSTRACT: Objective To measure the difference in prescribing error rates between 2 clinics, 1 with a system in place to reduce errors and 1 with no such system; to determine variables that affect the likelihood of prescription errors. Methods This was a retrospective study at 2 university-based general pediatric clinics utilizing the same electronic medical record (EMR) system. Clinic 1 employed pharmacists who provided daily prescription review, provider feedback and education, and EMR customization to decrease errors. Clinic 2 had no systems in place for reducing prescribing errors. Prescriptions written by resident physicians over 2 months were identified and reviewed. Results A total of 1361 prescriptions were reviewed, 40.7% from clinic 1 and 59.3% from clinic 2. Errors were found in 201 prescriptions (14.8%). Clinics 1 and 2 had error rates of 11% and 17.5%, respectively (P = .0012). The odds of a prescription error at clinic 2 were 1.7 times the odds of a prescription error at clinic 1. Logistic regression identified clinic, nonpediatric resident, liquid dose forms, and younger patient age as significant predictors of prescription errors. Half of the errors could have been prevented with consistent use of a custom medication list within the EMR. Conclusions We found 37% fewer prescribing errors in a clinic with systems in place for prescribing error detection and prevention. Pediatric clinics should explore systematic procedures for identifying, resolving, and providing education about prescribing errors to reduce patient risk.Academic Pediatrics. 10/2014; 14(5):485–490.
Article: Prevention of adverse drug events.Clinical Toxicology 04/2014; · 2.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate users' initial perceptions of and potential applications for the Educating Pharmacy Students and Pharmacists to Improve Quality (EPIQ) program, a 5-module education program designed to educate pharmacists and pharmacy students about quality improvement in pharmacy practice. The 5-module EPIQ program was distributed to pharmacy faculty members, pharmacy practitioners, and other health professionals across the country upon request. A 6-item survey instrument was sent to the first 97 people who requested the program. Twenty-seven (56%) of the 55 respondents had reviewed the EPIQ program and 22 (82%) intended to use some or all of the content to teach about quality improvement or patient safety primarily in pharmacy management and medication safety courses. Initial perceptions of the EPIQ program were positive; however, further evaluation is needed after more extensive implementation of the program in pharmacy colleges and schools and other settings.American journal of pharmaceutical education 10/2011; 75(8):163. · 1.21 Impact Factor