Cloning of human acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta promoter and its regulation by muscle regulatory factors.
ABSTRACT The 280-kDa beta-isoform of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCbeta) is predominantly expressed in heart and skeletal muscle, whereas the 265-kDa alpha-isoform (ACCalpha) is the major ACC in lipogenic tissues. The ACCbeta promoter showed myoblast-specific promoter activity and was strongly induced by MyoD in NIH3T3 cells. Serial deletions of the promoter revealed that MyoD acts on the E-boxes located at positions -498 to -403 and on the proximal region including the 5'-untranslated region. Destruction of the E-boxes at positions -498 to -403 by site-directed mutagenesis resulted in a significant decrease of MyoD responsiveness. The "TGAAA" at -32 to -28 and the region around the transcription start site play important roles in basal transcription, probably as a TATA box and an Inr element, respectively. Mutations of another E-box at -14 to -9 and a "GCCTGTCA" sequence at +17 to +24 drastically decreased the MyoD responsiveness. The novel cis-element GCCTGTCA was preferentially bound by MyoD homodimer in EMSA and conferred MyoD responsiveness to a luciferase reporter, which was repressed by the overexpression of E12. This finding is unique since activation via E-boxes is mediated by heterodimers of MyoD and E-proteins. We screened a human skeletal muscle cDNA library to isolate clones expressing proteins that bind to the region around the GCCTGTCA (+8 to +27) sequence, and isolated Myf4 and Myf6 cDNAs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that recombinant Myf4 and Myf6 bind to this novel cis-element. Moreover, transient expression of Myf6 induced significant activation on the ACCbeta promoter or an artificial promoter harboring this novel cis-element. These findings suggest that muscle regulatory factors, such as MyoD, Myf4, and Myf6, contribute to the muscle-specific expression of ACCbeta via E-boxes and the novel cis-element GCCTGTCA.
Article: The myostatin gene is a downstream target gene of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MyoD.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Myostatin is a negative regulator of myogenesis, and inactivation of myostatin leads to heavy muscle growth. Here we have cloned and characterized the bovine myostatin gene promoter. Alignment of the upstream sequences shows that the myostatin promoter is highly conserved during evolution. Sequence analysis of 1.6 kb of the bovine myostatin gene upstream region revealed that it contains 10 E-box motifs (E1 to E10), arranged in three clusters, and a single MEF2 site. Deletion and mutation analysis of the myostatin gene promoter showed that out of three important E boxes (E3, E4, and E6) of the proximal cluster, E6 plays a significant role in the regulation of a reporter gene in C(2)C(12) cells. We also demonstrate by band shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay that the E6 E-box motif binds to MyoD in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, cotransfection experiments indicate that among the myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD preferentially up-regulates myostatin promoter activity. Since MyoD expression varies during the myoblast cell cycle, we analyzed the myostatin promoter activity in synchronized myoblasts and quiescent "reserve" cells. Our results suggest that myostatin promoter activity is relatively higher during the G(1) phase of the cell cycle, when MyoD expression levels are maximal. However, in the reserve cells, which lack MyoD expression, a significant reduction in the myostatin promoter activity is observed. Taken together, these results suggest that the myostatin gene is a downstream target gene of MyoD. Since the myostatin gene is implicated in controlling G(1)-to-S progression of myoblasts, MyoD could be triggering myoblast withdrawal from the cell cycle by regulating myostatin gene expression.Molecular and Cellular Biology 11/2002; 22(20):7066-82. · 5.53 Impact Factor