Increased susceptibility to deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension in endothelin-B-receptor-deficient rats.
ABSTRACT We evaluated the role of endothelin-B- (ET(B)) receptor-mediated action in the development and maintenance of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-induced hypertension, cardiovascular hypertrophy and renal damage, using the spotting lethal (sl) rat which carries a naturally occurring deletion in the ET(B)-receptor gene. Homozygous (sl/sl) rats exhibit abnormal development of the neural crest-derived epidermal melanocytes and the enteric nervous system (ENS), and do not live beyond 1 month because of intestinal aganglionosis and resulting intestinal obstruction. Therefore, the dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (D betaH) promoter was used to direct ET(B) transgene expression in sl/sl rats to support normal ENS development. D betaH-ET(B) sl/sl rats live into adulthood and are healthy, expressing ET(B)-receptor in adrenals and other adrenergic neurons. When homozygous (sl/sl) and wild-type (WT) (+/+) rats, all of which were transgenic, were treated with DOCA and salt for 4 weeks, the homozygous rats exhibited significantly earlier and higher increases in systolic blood pressure than WT rats. The daily oral administration of ABT-627, a selective ET(A)-receptor antagonist, almost completely suppressed the DOCA-salt-induced hypertension in both groups. Renal dysfunction and histological damage induced by DOCA-salt treatment were more severe in homozygous than in WT rats. Increased and marked vascular hypertrophy of the aorta was also observed in homozygous rats, compared with WT rats. Renal and vascular injuries induced by DOCA and salt were significantly improved by ABT-627 administration. We propose that ET(B)-receptor-mediated actions are protective factors in the pathogenesis of DOCA-salt-induced hypertension. ET(A)-mediated actions are at least partly responsible for the increased susceptibility to DOCA-salt-induced hypertension and related tissue injuries in ET(B)-receptor-deficient rats.
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ABSTRACT: We used patch-clamp electrophysiology to investigate regulation of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) by endothelin-1 (ET-1) in isolated, split-open rat collecting ducts. ET-1 significantly decreases ENaC open probability by about threefold within 5 min. ET-1 decreases ENaC activity through basolateral membrane ETB but not ETA receptors. In rat collecting duct, we find no role for phospholipase C or protein kinase C in the rapid response of ENaC to ET-1. ET-1, although, does activate src family tyrosine kinases and their downstream MAPK1/2 effector cascade in renal principal cells. Both src kinases and MAPK1/2 signaling are necessary for ET-1-dependent decreases in ENaC open probability in the split-open collecting duct. We conclude that ET-1 in a physiologically relevant manner rapidly suppresses ENaC activity in native, mammalian principal cells. These findings may provide a potential mechanism for the natriuresis observed in vivo in response to ET-1, as well as a potential cause for the salt-sensitive hypertension found in animals with impaired endothelin signaling.American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 08/2008; 295(4):F1063-70. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelin (ET) type B (ET(B)) receptors exert dilator and constrictor actions in a complex interaction with ET(A) receptors. We aimed to clarify the presence and relative importance of nitric oxide (NO) and other mechanisms underlying the dilator effects of ET(B) receptors in rat kidneys. Complete inhibition of NO production with Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 25 mg/kg iv) enhanced the renal vasoconstriction elicited by ET-1 injected into the renal artery from -15 to -30%. Additional infusion of the NO donor nitroprusside (NP) into the renal artery did not reverse this effect (-29%) but effectively buffered ANG II-mediated vasoconstriction. Similarly, ET-1 responses were enhanced after a smaller intrarenal dose of L-NAME (-22 vs. -15%) and were unaffected by subsequent NP infusion (-21%). These results indicate that the responsiveness to ET-1 is buffered by ET(B) receptor-stimulated phasic release of NO, rather than its static mean level. Infusion of the ET(B) receptor antagonist BQ-788 into the renal artery further enhanced the ET-1 constrictor response to NP+L-NAME (-92 vs. -49%), revealing an NO-independent dilator component. In controls, vasoconstriction to ET-1 was unaffected by vehicle (-27 vs. -20%) and markedly enhanced by BQ-788 (-70%). The same pattern was observed when indomethacin (Indo) was used to inhibit cyclooxygenase (-20% for control, -22% with Indo, and -56% with ET(B) antagonist) or methylsulfonyl-6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl)-hexanamide (MS-PPOH) or miconazole+Indo was used to inhibit epoxygenase alone (-10% for control, -11% with MS-PPOH, and -35% with ET(B) antagonist) or in combination (-14% for control, -20% with Indo + miconazole, and -43% with ET(B) antagonist). We conclude that phasic release of NO, but not its static level, mediates part of the dilator effect of ET(B) receptors and that an NO-independent mechanism, distinct from prostanoids and epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids, perhaps ET(B) receptor clearance of ET-1, plays a major buffering role.AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 06/2005; 288(5):R1168-77. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aldosterone and endothelin-1 (ET-1) act on collecting duct cells of the kidney and are important regulators of renal sodium transport and cardiovascular physiology. We recently identified the ET-1 gene (edn1) as a novel aldosterone-induced transcript. However, aldosterone action on edn1 has not been characterized at the present time. In this report, we show that aldosterone stimulated edn1 mRNA in acutely isolated rat inner medullary collecting duct cells ex vivo and ET-1 peptide in rat inner medulla in vivo. Aldosterone induction of edn1 mRNA occurred in cortical, outer medullary, and inner medullary collecting duct cells in vitro. Inspection of the edn1 promoter revealed two putative hormone response elements. Levels of heterogeneous nuclear RNA synthesis demonstrated that edn1 mRNA stimulation occurred at the level of transcription. RNA knockdowns corroborated pharmacological studies and demonstrated both mineralocorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid receptor participated in this response. Aldosterone resulted in dose-dependent nuclear translocation and binding of mineralocorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid receptor to the edn1 hormone response elements. Hormone receptors mediated the association of chromatin remodeling complexes, histone modification, and RNA polymerase II at the edn1 promoter. Direct interaction between aldosterone and ET-1 has important implications for renal and cardiovascular function.Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2009; 284(44):30087-96. · 4.60 Impact Factor