Chronicity, severity, and timing of maternal depressive symptoms: relationships with child outcomes at age 5.

Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA.
Developmental Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.21). 12/2000; 36(6):759-66. DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.36.6.759
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The relationships between severity, chronicity, and timing of maternal depressive symptoms and child outcomes were examined in a cohort of 4,953 children. Mothers provided self-reports of depressive symptoms during pregnancy, immediately postpartum, and when the child was 6 months old and 5 years old. At the age 5 follow-up, mothers reported on children's behavior and children completed a receptive vocabulary test. Results suggest that both the severity and the chronicity of maternal depressive symptoms are related to more behavior problems and lower vocabulary scores in children. The interaction of severity and chronicity of maternal depressive symptoms was significantly related to higher levels of child behavior problems. Timing of maternal symptoms was not significantly related to child vocabulary scores, but more recent reports of maternal depressive symptoms were associated with higher rates of child behavior problems.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study aims to measure incidence and persistence of depression and to investigate the influence of self-reported antenatal social support and traditional/nuclear family structure on incidence and persistence of depression between the third trimester of pregnancy and following childbirth. We hypothesised that lower antenatal social support would be associated with incidence and persistence of case-level depressive symptoms and the family structure would have an effect on the incidence and persistence of depressive symptoms. The cohort study described here was carried out in and around Ankara the capital of Turkey, because of the considerable heterogeneity of the population in terms of traditional Middle Eastern and 'modern' Western lifestyle and social environment. Samples were drawn from 20 urban and rural antenatal clinics (mainly primary care settings) within the geographic catchment. Of 730 women recruited in their third trimester, 578 (79.2%) were re-examined between 2 and 6 months after childbirth. Exclusion criteria were as follows: aged younger than 18 years, illiteracy, significant health problems and refusal to participate. Close Persons Questionnaire items enquired about relationships with the husband, mother and mother-in-law and depression was ascertained using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at the each assessments. In those followed, onset of postnatal depression occurred in 13.9% and persistence of antenatal depression in 49.7%. After adjustment, worse emotional support from the mother-in-law was significantly associated with postnatal depression incidence (OR=0.93, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.99) and worse emotional support from the husband with postnatal persistence (OR=0.89, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.96) of antenatal depression. Family structure was not a risk or modifying factor. The incidence and persistence of postnatal depression in this Middle Eastern cohort were comparable to international findings. Certain family relationships predicted incidence and persistence of postnatal depression but no role of traditional/nuclear family structure was found. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    BMJ Open 04/2015; 5(4):e006456. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006456 · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Children exposed to maternal depression during pregnancy and in the postnatal period are at increased risk of a range of health, wellbeing and development problems. However, few studies have examined the course of maternal depressive symptoms in the perinatal period and beyond on children’s wellbeing. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between both the severity and chronicity of maternal depressive symptoms across the early childhood period and children’s emotional–behavioural difficulties at 4 years of age. Data from over 1,085 mothers and children participating in a large Australian prospective pregnancy cohort were used. Latent class analysis identified three distinct trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms from pregnancy to 4 years postpartum: (1) no or few symptoms (61 %), (2) persistent subclinical symptoms (30 %), and (3) increasing and persistently high symptoms (9 %). Regression analyses revealed that children of mothers experiencing subclinical and increasing and persistently high symptoms were at least two times more likely to have emotional–behavioural difficulties than children of mothers reporting minimal symptoms, even after accounting for known risk factors for poor outcomes for children. These findings challenge policy makers and health professionals to consider how they can tailor care and support to mothers experiencing a broader spectrum of depressive symptoms across the early childhood period, to maximize opportunities to improve both short-and long-term maternal and child health outcomes.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00787-014-0672-2 · 3.55 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of telephone-based peer support on maternal depression and social support BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression is a global health concern and lack of treatment options mean many mothers are depressed beyond the first year after birth. Strong evidence has shown telephone-based peer support, provided by a mother recovered from depression, effectively improves depression outcomes. This model has not been tested with mothers with depression any time up to two years postpartum. Quasi-experimental, one group pre-test, posttest. The study population was mothers in New Brunswick, Canada with depression up to 24 months after delivery. The sample (N = 64) was recruited between May 2011-October 2013. Peer volunteers recovered from postpartum depression were trained and delivered an average of 8·84 (Range 1-13) support telephone calls. Depression and social support outcomes were assessed at intervention mid-point (average 7·43 weeks, n = 37) and end (average 13·9 weeks, n = 34). Mean depression significantly declined from baseline, 15·4 (N = 49), to mid-point, 8·30 and end of the study, 6·26. At mid-point 8·1% (n = 3/37) of mothers were depressed and at endpoint 11·8% (4/34) were depressed suggesting some relapse. Perceptions of social support significantly improved and higher support was significantly related with lower depression symptoms. Findings offer promise that telephone-based peer support is effective for both early postpartum depression and maternal depression up to two years after delivery. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Journal of Advanced Nursing 02/2015; DOI:10.1111/jan.12622 · 1.69 Impact Factor