Chronicity, severity, and timing of maternal depressive symptoms: Relationships with child outcomes at age 5. Developmental Psychology, 36(6), 759-766

Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA.
Developmental Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.21). 12/2000; 36(6):759-66. DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.36.6.759
Source: PubMed


The relationships between severity, chronicity, and timing of maternal depressive symptoms and child outcomes were examined in a cohort of 4,953 children. Mothers provided self-reports of depressive symptoms during pregnancy, immediately postpartum, and when the child was 6 months old and 5 years old. At the age 5 follow-up, mothers reported on children's behavior and children completed a receptive vocabulary test. Results suggest that both the severity and the chronicity of maternal depressive symptoms are related to more behavior problems and lower vocabulary scores in children. The interaction of severity and chronicity of maternal depressive symptoms was significantly related to higher levels of child behavior problems. Timing of maternal symptoms was not significantly related to child vocabulary scores, but more recent reports of maternal depressive symptoms were associated with higher rates of child behavior problems.

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    • "Moreover, depression may vary in length from days to months, and it may be persistent or episodic, recurrent or non-recurrent. Several studies have examined the association between chronicity and severity of maternal depression and offspring diagnoses and found that both parameters are associated with later adverse child outcomes, albeit in different ways (Brennan et al. 2000; Campbell et al. 2004; Hammen and Brennan 2003). For example, Hammen and Brennan (2003) found that chronicity of maternal depression during the first 10 years of a child's life was associated more with non-depressive diagnostic outcomes than was severity, whereas severity of maternal depression contributed more to children's risk for depression than did chronicity. "
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    ABSTRACT: Considerable research has demonstrated that maternal depression is a significant risk factor for emotional and behavioral problems in children and adolescents (Goodman and Gotlib in Psychol Rev 106:458-490, 1999). It is important to note, however, that most children of depressed parents do not develop problems. This review will examine studies of resilience as they relate to the degree to which positive adjustment occurs across different levels of risk (i.e., severity and chronicity of depression as well as in context of multiple risk factors), domains of adjustment, and time. Understanding the phenomenon of resilience to depression is of critical importance to prevention and intervention experts because it may provide insight into processes that can be enhanced and targeted in prevention approaches among high-risk populations.
    Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10567-015-0195-5 · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    • "Moreover, monolingual children of depressed mothers demonstrate decreased language abilities from early ages. Between ages 1 and 5 years, this group of children shows low language abilities overall and slower growth over time when compared to children whose mothers are not depressed (Brennan et al., 2000; Cox, Puckering, Pound, & Mills, 1987; Horwitz et al., 2003; Murray, 1992; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [NICHD] Early Child Care Research Network, 1999; Pan, Rowe, Singer, & Snow, 2005). For example, Pan et al. (2005) found that children of depressed mothers had lower vocabulary growth trajectories than children of nondepressed mothers from 1 to 3 years of age. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the impact of maternal depressive symptomatology and social support on the English and Spanish language growth of young bilingual children from low-income backgrounds. It was hypothesized that maternal depression would slow children's development in both languages but that social support would buffer the negative effect. Longitudinal data were collected from 83 mothers of Puerto Rican descent and their children who were attending Head Start preschool for two years. The effects of maternal depressive symptomatology and social support from family and friends on receptive vocabulary and oral comprehension development in both languages were examined. Growth curve modeling revealed that maternal depressive symptomatology negatively affected Spanish receptive vocabulary development only. Maternal depression did not impact children's English receptive vocabulary or their oral comprehension in either language. Social support was not related to maternal depressive symptomatology or child language. These findings suggest that maternal depression is one risk factor that contributes to less robust home language development of low-income bilingual children. Speech-language pathologists must (a) increase their awareness of maternal depression in order to provide families with appropriate mental health referrals, and (b) consider their roles as supportive adults for children whose mothers may be depressed.
    American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology 04/2015; 24(3). DOI:10.1044/2015_AJSLP-14-0038 · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    • "Acceptable and effective depression treatments are needed to prevent negative long-term effects on the mother and child (Brennan et al. 2000, Elgar et al. 2003, Mayberry et al. 2007, Reay et al. 2011, Dix & Yan 2014) and address the higher postpartum depression rate among mothers in rural areas (Johnstone et al. 2001, Villegas et al. 2011). Unfortunately mothers are less likely to accept established depression treatments such as medication and interpersonal therapies (Dennis & Hodnett 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of telephone-based peer support on maternal depression and social support BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression is a global health concern and lack of treatment options mean many mothers are depressed beyond the first year after birth. Strong evidence has shown telephone-based peer support, provided by a mother recovered from depression, effectively improves depression outcomes. This model has not been tested with mothers with depression any time up to two years postpartum. Quasi-experimental, one group pre-test, posttest. The study population was mothers in New Brunswick, Canada with depression up to 24 months after delivery. The sample (N = 64) was recruited between May 2011-October 2013. Peer volunteers recovered from postpartum depression were trained and delivered an average of 8·84 (Range 1-13) support telephone calls. Depression and social support outcomes were assessed at intervention mid-point (average 7·43 weeks, n = 37) and end (average 13·9 weeks, n = 34). Mean depression significantly declined from baseline, 15·4 (N = 49), to mid-point, 8·30 and end of the study, 6·26. At mid-point 8·1% (n = 3/37) of mothers were depressed and at endpoint 11·8% (4/34) were depressed suggesting some relapse. Perceptions of social support significantly improved and higher support was significantly related with lower depression symptoms. Findings offer promise that telephone-based peer support is effective for both early postpartum depression and maternal depression up to two years after delivery. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Journal of Advanced Nursing 02/2015; 71(7). DOI:10.1111/jan.12622 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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