Chronicity, severity, and timing of maternal depressive symptoms: Relationships with child outcomes at age 5. Developmental Psychology, 36(6), 759-766

Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA.
Developmental Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.21). 12/2000; 36(6):759-66. DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.36.6.759
Source: PubMed


The relationships between severity, chronicity, and timing of maternal depressive symptoms and child outcomes were examined in a cohort of 4,953 children. Mothers provided self-reports of depressive symptoms during pregnancy, immediately postpartum, and when the child was 6 months old and 5 years old. At the age 5 follow-up, mothers reported on children's behavior and children completed a receptive vocabulary test. Results suggest that both the severity and the chronicity of maternal depressive symptoms are related to more behavior problems and lower vocabulary scores in children. The interaction of severity and chronicity of maternal depressive symptoms was significantly related to higher levels of child behavior problems. Timing of maternal symptoms was not significantly related to child vocabulary scores, but more recent reports of maternal depressive symptoms were associated with higher rates of child behavior problems.

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Available from: Patricia A Brennan, Oct 03, 2015
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    • "Moreover, monolingual children of depressed mothers demonstrate decreased language abilities from early ages. Between ages 1 and 5 years, this group of children shows low language abilities overall and slower growth over time when compared to children whose mothers are not depressed (Brennan et al., 2000; Cox, Puckering, Pound, & Mills, 1987; Horwitz et al., 2003; Murray, 1992; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [NICHD] Early Child Care Research Network, 1999; Pan, Rowe, Singer, & Snow, 2005). For example, Pan et al. (2005) found that children of depressed mothers had lower vocabulary growth trajectories than children of nondepressed mothers from 1 to 3 years of age. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the impact of maternal depressive symptomatology and social support on the English and Spanish language growth of young bilingual children from low-income backgrounds. It was hypothesized that maternal depression would slow children's development in both languages but that social support would buffer the negative effect. Longitudinal data were collected from 83 mothers of Puerto Rican descent and their children who were attending Head Start preschool for two years. The effects of maternal depressive symptomatology and social support from family and friends on receptive vocabulary and oral comprehension development in both languages were examined. Growth curve modeling revealed that maternal depressive symptomatology negatively affected Spanish receptive vocabulary development only. Maternal depression did not impact children's English receptive vocabulary or their oral comprehension in either language. Social support was not related to maternal depressive symptomatology or child language. These findings suggest that maternal depression is one risk factor that contributes to less robust home language development of low-income bilingual children. Speech-language pathologists must (a) increase their awareness of maternal depression in order to provide families with appropriate mental health referrals, and (b) consider their roles as supportive adults for children whose mothers may be depressed.
    American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology 04/2015; 24(3). DOI:10.1044/2015_AJSLP-14-0038 · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    • "Acceptable and effective depression treatments are needed to prevent negative long-term effects on the mother and child (Brennan et al. 2000, Elgar et al. 2003, Mayberry et al. 2007, Reay et al. 2011, Dix & Yan 2014) and address the higher postpartum depression rate among mothers in rural areas (Johnstone et al. 2001, Villegas et al. 2011). Unfortunately mothers are less likely to accept established depression treatments such as medication and interpersonal therapies (Dennis & Hodnett 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of telephone-based peer support on maternal depression and social support BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression is a global health concern and lack of treatment options mean many mothers are depressed beyond the first year after birth. Strong evidence has shown telephone-based peer support, provided by a mother recovered from depression, effectively improves depression outcomes. This model has not been tested with mothers with depression any time up to two years postpartum. Quasi-experimental, one group pre-test, posttest. The study population was mothers in New Brunswick, Canada with depression up to 24 months after delivery. The sample (N = 64) was recruited between May 2011-October 2013. Peer volunteers recovered from postpartum depression were trained and delivered an average of 8·84 (Range 1-13) support telephone calls. Depression and social support outcomes were assessed at intervention mid-point (average 7·43 weeks, n = 37) and end (average 13·9 weeks, n = 34). Mean depression significantly declined from baseline, 15·4 (N = 49), to mid-point, 8·30 and end of the study, 6·26. At mid-point 8·1% (n = 3/37) of mothers were depressed and at endpoint 11·8% (4/34) were depressed suggesting some relapse. Perceptions of social support significantly improved and higher support was significantly related with lower depression symptoms. Findings offer promise that telephone-based peer support is effective for both early postpartum depression and maternal depression up to two years after delivery. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Journal of Advanced Nursing 02/2015; 71(7). DOI:10.1111/jan.12622 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    • "The combination, sequence and interrelationship of these factors may contribute directly or indirectly to the development of mental disorders in childhood, over and above the influence of maternal depression (Barker et al., 2012; Goodman and Gotlib, 1999). Although the consequences of chronic or recurrent maternal depression on offspring mental health are well known (Brennan et al., 2000), most studies of the impact of postnatal depression on child outcomes have addressed incompletely the course and severity of maternal depression. We identified few studies, and all of them from high-income countries, that modeled trajectories of maternal depression and studied the impact of these trajectories on child psychiatric disorders (Ashman et al., 2008; Campbell et al., 2007; Cents et al., 2013; Gross et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have addressed the course and severity of maternal depression and its effects on child psychiatric disorders from a longitudinal perspective. This study aimed to identify longitudinal patterns of maternal depression and to evaluate whether distinct depression trajectories predict particular psychiatric disorders in offspring. Cohort of 4231 births followed-up in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 3, 12, 24 and 48 months and 6 years after delivery. Psychiatric disorders in 6-year-old children were evaluated through the development and well-being assessment (DAWBA) instrument. Trajectories of maternal depression were calculated using a group-based modelling approach. We identified five trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms: a "low" trajectory (34.8%), a "moderate low" (40.9%), a "increasing" (9.0%), a "decreasing" (9.9%), and a "high-chronic" trajectory (5.4%). The probability of children having any psychiatric disorder, as well as both internalizing and externalizing problems, increased as we moved from the "low" to the "high-chronic" trajectory. These differences were not explained by maternal and child characteristics examined in multivariate analyses. Data on maternal depression at 3-months was available on only a sub-sample. In addition, we had to rely on maternal report of child's behavior alone. The study revealed an additive effect on child outcome of maternal depression over time. We identified a group of mothers with chronic and severe symptoms of depression throughout the first six years of the child life and for this group child psychiatric outcome was particularly compromised. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2014; 174C:424-431. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.12.012 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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