The psychiatric symptoms of rheumatic fever
ABSTRACT This study examined the frequency and age at onset of psychiatric disorders among children with rheumatic fever, Sydenham's chorea, or both and a comparison group.
Twenty children with rheumatic fever, 22 with Sydenham's chorea, and 20 comparison children were assessed by means of a semistructured interview and rating scales for tic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Obsessive-compulsive symptoms were more frequent in both the Sydenham's chorea and rheumatic fever groups than in the comparison group. The Sydenham's chorea group had a higher frequency of major depressive disorder, tic disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than both the comparison and rheumatic fever groups. ADHD symptoms were associated with a higher risk of developing Sydenham's chorea.
Both the rheumatic fever and Sydenham's chorea groups were associated with a higher risk of developing neuropsychiatric disorders than the comparison group. ADHD appears to be a risk factor for Sydenham's chorea in children with rheumatic fever.
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ABSTRACT: A syndrome of motoric and neuropsychiatric symptoms comprising various elements, including chorea, hyperactivity, tics, emotional lability, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, can occur in association with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infection. We tested the hypothesis that an immune response to GABHS can result in behavioral abnormalities. Female SJL/J mice were immunized and boosted with a GABHS homogenate in Freund's adjuvant, whereas controls received Freund's adjuvant alone. When sera from GABHS-immunized mice were tested for immunoreactivity to mouse brain, a subset was found to be immunoreactive to several brain regions, including deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN), globus pallidus, and thalamus. GABHS-immunized mice having serum immunoreactivity to DCN also had increased IgG deposits in DCN and exhibited increased rearing behavior in open-field and hole-board tests compared with controls and with GABHS-immunized mice lacking serum anti-DCN antibodies. Rearing and ambulatory behavior were correlated with IgG deposits in the DCN and with serum immunoreactivity to GABHS proteins in Western blot. In addition, serum from a GABHS mouse reacted with normal mouse cerebellum in nondenaturing Western blots and immunoprecipitated C4 complement protein and alpha-2-macroglobulin. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that immune response to GABHS can result in motoric and behavioral disturbances and suggest that anti-GABHS antibodies cross-reactive with brain components may play a role in their pathophysiology.The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 03/2004; 24(7):1780-91. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0887-03.2004 · 6.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We report four previously healthy female children, aged between 3 and 8 years, who presented with encephalopathy and an extrapyramidal movement disorder (chorea n=4, rigidity n=2, oculogyric crisis n=2). In addition, an acute behavioural disturbance occurred in two patients and mutism in two others. Seizures heralded the onset of the illness in three patients. Acute MRI was either normal or initially normal with later generalized cerebral atrophy. All infective (including streptococcus), biochemical, and metabolic investigations were normal, although all four patients had oligoclonal bands in the (CSF) but not the serum, indicating intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis. All four children made an apparently full recovery within four months of the onset. We suggest that these patients represent an immune-mediated movement disorder and encephalopathy syndrome.Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 05/2002; 44(4):273-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2002.tb00804.x · 3.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Group A Streptococcus has been associated with ADHD, tic disorders (TD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) through anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA). We investigated the association between ABGA and streptococcal exposure with behavioral, motor, and cognitive measures in 38 children with ADHD not comorbid to OCD or TD (nc-ADHD) and in 38 healthy children. An additional group of 15 children with TD and/or OCD was examined. ABGA titers were present in 3% of nc-ADHD patients and controls but in 27% of TD and/or OCD patients. Evidence of streptococcal exposure was similar between ADHD patients and controls living in the same urban area. Behavioral, motor, and cognitive measures were not associated with anti-streptococcal antibodies. ABGA do not distinguish nc-ADHD from controls. The differences in the frequency of streptococcal exposure in previous studies are determined by the dynamic nature of the infection rather than the behavioral phenotype of ADHD. © 2015 SAGE Publications.Journal of Attention Disorders 04/2015; DOI:10.1177/1087054715580841 · 2.40 Impact Factor