Obstetric complications in patients with depression--a population-based case-control study.
ABSTRACT To examine whether sufferers of affective disorders are more likely to be subject to obstetric complications than normal healthy people.
Data based on prospectively recorded birth case-notes for patients with a diagnosis of depression (or related disorders) with early onset were compared to those of normal healthy controls, individually matched by gender, time and parity of birth, maternal age and marital status.
Forty-one case-controls pairs born between 1964 and 1978 were compared. No differences between cases and controls in gestational age or birthweight were significant, though depressive patients on average weighed 200 g less than controls at birth. Patients were more likely than controls to be small for their gestational age (22 vs. 1: chi(2)=4.34, P=0.03). They were significantly more likely than controls to have suffered at least one obstetric complication: 35 (85%) vs. 25 (60%), chi(2)=5.03, P=0.02; or more than one (two on average, as opposed to one on average among controls). No obstetric complication was seen significantly more among cases than controls, apart from bleeding during gestation, which was observed for four cases and no controls. The prevalence of complications with a clear brain damaging potential did not differ significantly between cases and controls: 11 (26%) vs. 8 (19%).
A developmental deficit, as indicated by lower birthweight and gestational age, may contribute to the risk of depressive breakdowns and affective disorders in later life. Severe, brain damaging obstetric complications are unlikely to be a significant risk factor for affective disorders, though some early onset cases may be accounted for by prenatal brain lesions. Limitations: Sample size limits statistical power for isolation of a rare, single risk factor.
SourceAvailable from: Qiu-Yue Zhong[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Antepartum depression is one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality in the prenatal period. There is accumulating evidence for the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathophysiology of depression. The present study examines the extent to which maternal early pregnancy serum BDNF levels are associated with antepartum depression. A total of 968 women were recruited and interviewed in early pregnancy. Antepartum depression prevalence and symptom severity were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scale. Maternal serum BDNF levels were measured using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Logistic regression procedures were performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) adjusted for confounders. Maternal early pregnancy serum BDNF levels were significantly lower in women with antepartum depression compared to women without depression (mean ± standard deviation [SD]: 20.78 ± 5.97 vs. 21.85 ± 6.42 ng/ml, p = 0.024). Lower BDNF levels were associated with increased odds of maternal antepartum depression. After adjusting for confounding, women whose serum BDNF levels were in the lowest three quartiles (<17.32 ng/ml) had 1.61-fold increased odds (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.13, 2.30) of antepartum depression as compared with women whose BDNF levels were in the highest quartile (>25.31 ng/ml). There was no evidence of an association of BDNF levels with depression symptom severity. Lower maternal serum BDNF levels in early pregnancy are associated with antepartum depression. These findings may point toward new therapeutic opportunities and BDNF should be assessed as a potential biomarker for risk prediction and monitoring response to treatment for antepartum depression.BMC Psychiatry 12/2015; 15(1):428. DOI:10.1186/s12888-015-0428-7 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background There is no consensus on the effects that low birth weight, premature birth and intrauterine growth have on later depression. Aims To review systematically the evidence on the relationship of low birth weight, smallness for gestational age (SGA) and premature birth with adult depression. Method We searched the literature for original studies assessing the effect of low birth weight, premature birth and SGA on adult depression. Separate meta-analyses were carried out for each exposure using random and fixed effects models. We evaluated the contribution of methodological covariates to heterogeneity using meta-regression. Results We identified 14 studies evaluating low birth weight, 9 premature birth and 4 SGA. Low birth weight increased the odds of depression (OR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.21-1.60). Premature birth and SGA were not associated with depression, but publication bias might have underestimated the effect of the former and only four studies evaluated SGA. Conclusions Low birth weight was associated with depression. Future studies evaluating premature birth and SGA are needed.The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science 11/2014; 205(5):340-347. DOI:10.1192/bjp.bp.113.139014 · 7.34 Impact Factor