Short-term cotherapy with clonazepam and fluoxetine: anxiety, sleep disturbance and core symptoms of depression
ABSTRACT SSRIs resolve depression slowly and may increase anxiety or insomnia. Adding clonazepam to fluoxetine sped response, raising the question of mechanism of action: reducing symptoms co-existing with depression, suppressing side-effects, and/or alleviating core depressive symptoms.
Adult outpatients randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with fluoxetine 20 mg+placebo or fluoxetine+clonazepam 0.5-1.0 mg were assessed by a HAM-D anxiety cluster, sleep disturbance cluster, and core symptoms cluster. Results: No serious AEs were noted; no cotherapy patients dropped for AEs. Cotherapy proved superior (HAM-D total, anxiety cluster, sleep disturbance cluster ANOVA P<0.001; core symptoms P<0.011). Treatment-emergent anxiety was reported for 25% of placebo patients and 7% of cotherapy patients (P<0.037); sleep disturbance for 10% of placebo patients and no cotherapy patients (P<0.055). Sedation and dry mouth were more common for cotherapy treatment (P>0.20).
Extended treatment and refractory depression were not addressed.
Low-dose cotherapy of fluoxetine with clonazepam was safe and accelerated response over 21 days of treatment, decreasing anxiety and sleep disturbance as symptoms and partially suppressed them as SSRI side-effects; it also modestly reduced core symptoms of low mood and loss of interest.
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ABSTRACT: Suicidality and suicide has been associated with many risk factors, while recent clinical and epidemiological studies increasingly point to a potential link between sleep loss or sleep disturbances and suicidality. This review on studies of sleep disturbances associated with suicidality, i.e., suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and completed suicide suggests a frequent association especially with insomnia and nightmares but also hypersomnia and sleep panic attacks. In suicidal insomniacs with comorbid psychiatric disorders, there is some evidence for an even independent predictive nature of sleep problems for suicidality. Considerations on the shared neurobiology, risk assessment and treatment options complement the overview. Thus, sleep disturbances may qualify as an individual treatable target of personalised medicine in the clinical routine as well as in suicide prevention programmes. A more detailed assessment of sleep problems and identification of specific risk domains in primary or secondary prevention of suicidality seem to be a future area of high importance.09/2011; 2(3). DOI:10.1007/s13167-011-0101-2
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ABSTRACT: Poor sleep is known to cause detrimental effects on the course of diverse psychiatric disorders and is a putative risk factor for hostility and aggression. Thus, sleep may be crucial in forensic psychiatric practice. However, little is known about the prevalence of sleep disturbances in these complex psychiatric patients. In this study we investigated the presence of sleep disorders and subjective sleep quality using the Sleep Diagnosis List (SDL), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), interviews addressing the causes of sleep complaints, and file information on sleep medications in 110 patients admitted to a forensic psychiatric hospital. Almost 30% of the participants suffered from one or more sleep disorders, especially insomnia. An even larger proportion of the participants (49.1%) experienced poor sleep quality. Interestingly, patients with an antisocial personality disorder or traits were particularly dissatisfied with their sleep. The most common causes of sleep problems were suboptimal sleep hygiene, stress or ruminating, negative sleep conditioning, and side effects of psychotropic medication. Of the poor sleepers, 40.7% received a hypnotic drug. Despite intensive clinical treatment, sleep problems are experienced by a large number of forensic psychiatric patients. It would be worthwhile to examine the effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological sleep interventions on both psychiatric symptoms and reactive aggressive behavior in forensic patients.Sleep Medicine 09/2013; 14(11). DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2013.03.008 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To acknowledge the clinical significance of anxiety in depressed patients, DSM-5 included criteria for an anxious distress specifier for major depressive disorder. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we modified our previously published depression scale to include a subscale assessing the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier. From December 1995 to August 2013, 773 psychiatric outpatients with major depressive disorder completed the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS) supplemented with questions for the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier (CUDOS-A). To examine discriminant and convergent validity, the patients were rated on clinician severity indices of depression, anxiety, and irritability. Discriminant and convergent validity was further examined in a subset of patients who completed other self-report symptom severity scales. Test-retest reliability was examined in a subset who completed the CUDOS-A twice. We compared patients who did and did not meet the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier on indices of psychosocial functioning and quality of life. The CUDOS-A subscale had high internal consistency and test-retest reliability; was more highly correlated with other self-report measures of anxiety than with measures of depression, substance use problems, eating disorders, and anger; and was more highly correlated with clinician severity ratings of anxiety than depression and irritability. CUDOS-A scores were significantly higher in depressed outpatients with a current anxiety disorder than in depressed patients without a comorbid anxiety disorder (P < .001). Finally, patients who met the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier reported poorer psychosocial functioning and quality of life than patients who did not meet the anxious distress specifier. In the present study of a large sample of psychiatric outpatients, the CUDOS-A was a reliable and valid measure of the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier for major depressive disorder.The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 04/2014; 75(6). DOI:10.4088/JCP.13m08961 · 5.14 Impact Factor