A consensus statement on critical thinking

Department of Nursing Education, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti 48197, USA.
Journal of Nursing Education (Impact Factor: 0.91). 12/2000; 39(8):352-9.
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this study was to define critical thinking in nursing. A Delphi technique with 5 rounds of input was used to achieve this purpose. An international panel of expert nurses from nine countries: Brazil, Canada, England, Iceland, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, Thailand, and 23 states in the U.S. participated in this study between 1995 and 1998. A consensus definition (statement) of critical thinking in nursing was achieved. The panel also identified and defined 10 habits of the mind (affective components) and 7 skills (cognitive components) of critical thinking in nursing. The habits of the mind of critical thinking in nursing included: confidence, contextual perspective, creativity, flexibility, inquisitiveness, intellectual integrity, intuition, open-mindedness, perseverance, and reflection. Skills of critical thinking in nursing included: analyzing, applying standards, discriminating, information seeking, logical reasoning, predicting and transforming knowledge. These findings can be used by practitioners, educators and researchers to advance understanding of the essential role of critical thinking in nursing.

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    • "Attributes are the dimensions of the concept appearing so much repeatedly in the definitions of the concept that the concept cannot survive without them. Scheffer and Rubenfeld (2000) categorized the attributes of the concept of CT in the following 17 dimensions: analyzing, applying the standards, confidence, contextual perspective, creativity , discriminating, flexibility, information seeking, inquisitiveness , intellectual integrity, intuition, logical reasoning, openmindedness , perseverance, predicting, self-reflection, and transforming knowledge. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Given the wide disagreement over the definition of critical thinking in different disciplines, defining and standardizing the concept according to the discipline of nursing is essential. Moreover, there is limited scientific evidence regarding critical thinking in the context of nursing in Iran. The aim of this study was to analyze and clarify the concept of critical thinking in nursing education in Iran. Methods We employed the hybrid model to define the concept of critical thinking. The hybrid model has three interconnected phases—the theoretical phase, the fieldwork phase, and the final analytic phase. In the theoretical phase, we searched the online scientific databases (such as Elsevier, Wiley, CINAHL, Proquest, Ovid, and Springer as well as Iranian databases such as SID, Magiran, and Iranmedex). In the fieldwork phase, a purposive sample of 17 nursing faculties, PhD students, clinical instructors, and clinical nurses was recruited. Participants were interviewed by using an interview guide. In the analytical phase we compared the data from the theoretical and the fieldwork phases. Results The concept of critical thinking had many different antecedents, attributes, and consequences. Antecedents, attributes, and consequences of critical thinking concept identified in the theoretical phase were in some ways different and in some way similar to antecedents, attributes, and consequences identified in the fieldwork phase. Finally critical thinking in nursing education in Iran was clarified. Conclusion Critical thinking is a logical, situational, purposive, and outcome-oriented thinking process. It is an acquired and evolving ability which develops individually. Such thinking process could lead to the professional accountability, personal development, God’s consent, conscience appeasement, and personality development.
    Asian Nursing Research 06/2014; 8(2). DOI:10.1016/j.anr.2014.02.005 · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    • "To define critical thinking in the context of nursing, Schefer and Rubenfeld (2000) conducted a five-round Delphi study in which 55 nurse educators were involved. Based on their study, a consensus was made on 17 dimensions of critical thinking under two categories of thinking (cognitive) skills and habits of mind[7] [Box 1]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Enhancing nursing students' critical thinking is a challenge faced by nurse educators. This study aimed at determining the effect of clinical concept mapping on discipline-based critical thinking of nursing students. In this quasi-experimental post-test only design, a convenient sample of 4(th) year nursing students (N = 32) participated. They were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group participated in a 1-day workshop on clinical concept mapping. They were also assigned to use at least two clinical concepts mapping during their clinical practice. Post-test was done using a specially designed package consisting of vignettes for measurement of 17 dimensions of critical thinking in nursing under two categories of cognitive critical thinking skills and habits of mind. They were required to write about how they would use a designated critical thinking skills or habits of mind to accomplish the nursing actions. The students' responses were evaluated based on identification of critical thinking, justification, and quality of the student's response. The mean score of both groups was compared by Mann-Whitney test using SPSS version 16.5. The results of the study revealed a significant difference between the two groups' critical thinking regarding identification, justification, and quality of responses, and overall critical thinking scores, cognitive thinking skills, and habits of mind. The two groups also differed significantly from each other in 11 out of 17 dimensions of critical thinking. Clinical concept mapping is a valuable strategy for improvement of critical thinking of nursing students. However, further studies are recommended to generalize this result to nursing students in their earlier stage of education.
    Iranian journal of nursing and midwifery research 03/2014; 19(1):70-76.
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    • "In an attempt to achieve a consensus on CT in nursing, an international nursing consensus group also analyzed CT using the Delphi process. Their findings confirmed the affective domains found by the APA ( " habits of mind " ) and added two more specific to nursing (creativity and intuition ) (Scheffer and Rubenfeld, 2000). Attributes of CT as well as knowledge are desired of nurses regardless of where they practice (American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN), 2008; National League for Nursing (NLN), 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Human patient simulation (HPS) is becoming a popular teaching method in nursing education globally and is believed to enhance both knowledge and critical thinking. OBJECTIVE: While there is evidence that HPS improves knowledge, there is no objective nursing data to support HPS impact on critical thinking. Therefore, we studied knowledge and critical thinking before and after HPS in prelicensure nursing students and attempted to identify the predictors of higher critical thinking scores. METHODS: Using a one-group, quasi-experimental, pre-test post-test design, 154 prelicensure nursing students (age 25.7±6.7; gender=87.7% female) from 3 schools were studied at the same point in their curriculum using a high-fidelity simulation. Pre- and post-HPS assessments of knowledge, critical thinking, and self-efficacy were done as well as assessments for demographics and learning style. RESULTS: There was a mean improvement in knowledge scores of 6.5 points (P<0.001), showing evidence of learning. However, there was no statistically significant change in the critical thinking scores. A logistic regression with 10 covariates revealed three variables to be predictors of higher critical thinking scores: greater "age" (P=0.01), baseline "knowledge" (P=0.04) and a low self-efficacy score ("not at all confident") in "baseline self-efficacy in managing a patient's fluid levels" (P=.05). CONCLUSION: This study reveals that gains in knowledge with HPS do not equate to changes in critical thinking. It does expose the variables of older age, higher baseline knowledge and low self-efficacy in "managing a patient's fluid levels" as being predictive of higher critical thinking ability. Further study is warranted to determine the effect of repeated or sequential simulations (dosing) and timing after the HPS experience on critical thinking gains.
    Nurse education today 05/2012; 33(9). DOI:10.1016/j.nedt.2012.04.004 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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