Article

A consensus statement on critical thinking in nursing

Department of Nursing Education, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti 48197, USA.
Journal of Nursing Education (Impact Factor: 0.91). 12/2000; 39(8):352-9.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to define critical thinking in nursing. A Delphi technique with 5 rounds of input was used to achieve this purpose. An international panel of expert nurses from nine countries: Brazil, Canada, England, Iceland, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, Thailand, and 23 states in the U.S. participated in this study between 1995 and 1998. A consensus definition (statement) of critical thinking in nursing was achieved. The panel also identified and defined 10 habits of the mind (affective components) and 7 skills (cognitive components) of critical thinking in nursing. The habits of the mind of critical thinking in nursing included: confidence, contextual perspective, creativity, flexibility, inquisitiveness, intellectual integrity, intuition, open-mindedness, perseverance, and reflection. Skills of critical thinking in nursing included: analyzing, applying standards, discriminating, information seeking, logical reasoning, predicting and transforming knowledge. These findings can be used by practitioners, educators and researchers to advance understanding of the essential role of critical thinking in nursing.

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    • "In an attempt to achieve a consensus on CT in nursing, an international nursing consensus group also analyzed CT using the Delphi process. Their findings confirmed the affective domains found by the APA ( " habits of mind " ) and added two more specific to nursing (creativity and intuition ) (Scheffer and Rubenfeld, 2000). Attributes of CT as well as knowledge are desired of nurses regardless of where they practice (American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN), 2008; National League for Nursing (NLN), 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Human patient simulation (HPS) is becoming a popular teaching method in nursing education globally and is believed to enhance both knowledge and critical thinking. OBJECTIVE: While there is evidence that HPS improves knowledge, there is no objective nursing data to support HPS impact on critical thinking. Therefore, we studied knowledge and critical thinking before and after HPS in prelicensure nursing students and attempted to identify the predictors of higher critical thinking scores. METHODS: Using a one-group, quasi-experimental, pre-test post-test design, 154 prelicensure nursing students (age 25.7±6.7; gender=87.7% female) from 3 schools were studied at the same point in their curriculum using a high-fidelity simulation. Pre- and post-HPS assessments of knowledge, critical thinking, and self-efficacy were done as well as assessments for demographics and learning style. RESULTS: There was a mean improvement in knowledge scores of 6.5 points (P<0.001), showing evidence of learning. However, there was no statistically significant change in the critical thinking scores. A logistic regression with 10 covariates revealed three variables to be predictors of higher critical thinking scores: greater "age" (P=0.01), baseline "knowledge" (P=0.04) and a low self-efficacy score ("not at all confident") in "baseline self-efficacy in managing a patient's fluid levels" (P=.05). CONCLUSION: This study reveals that gains in knowledge with HPS do not equate to changes in critical thinking. It does expose the variables of older age, higher baseline knowledge and low self-efficacy in "managing a patient's fluid levels" as being predictive of higher critical thinking ability. Further study is warranted to determine the effect of repeated or sequential simulations (dosing) and timing after the HPS experience on critical thinking gains.
    Nurse education today 05/2012; 33(9). DOI:10.1016/j.nedt.2012.04.004 · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    • "This definition can be used to facilitate the development of teaching methods to specifically target these habits of mind to operationalise nurses' critical thinking in practice (Staib, 2003). Nurses using critical thinking skills were said to practice the cognitive skills of 'analysing, applying standards, discriminating, information seeking, logical reasoning, predicting and transforming knowledge' (Scheffer and Rubenfield, 2000). These attributes are also compatible with concepts of capability which enable health professionals to work effectively in unfamiliar constructs and manage the dynamic environment they work in (Fraser and Greenhalgh, 2001; Hase and Kenyon, 2001). "
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    Nurse education today 04/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.nedt.2012.03.012 · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    • "Applying standards. Scheffer and Rubenfeld (2000) defined this skill as making judgments ''according to established personal, professional, or social rules or criteria'' (p. 17). "
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    ABSTRACT: The development of critical thinking is crucial in professional edu- cation to augment the capabilities of pre-professional students. One method for enhancing critical thinking is participation in role-playing simulation-based sce- narios where students work together to resolve a potentially real situation. In this study, undergraduate nursing students were divided into small groups (2-3) to role-play a medical emergency (stroke) within a high fidelity simulation envi- ronment. The research team utilized a cross-case comparison design; cases were defined by the different roles played by the nursing students (e.g., primary nurse, secondary nurse, and family member). Results indicated that although students in all three roles displayed instances of reflection, contextual perspective, and logical reasoning, these were not distributed evenly across roles, with family members demonstrating fewer instances of reflection and logical reasoning and secondary nurses demonstrating fewer instances of contextual perspective. However, evi- dence of students' abilities to apply clinical standards was observed fairly equally across all three roles. Implications for the use of role-plays within high-fidelity simulations are discussed.
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