In vitro activity of GAR-936 against vancomycin-resistant enterococci, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.
ABSTRACT We report the activity of the new glycylcycline antimicrobial agent GAR-936 against 37 clinical isolates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (including organisms carrying the vanA, vanB, vanC-1, and vanC-2/3 genes), 26 clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus and 30 clinical isolates of high-level penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae. All isolates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae were inhibited by < or = 1, < or = 2, or < or = 0.25 microg/ml of GAR-936, respectively. Time kill experiments using vancomycin-resistant enterococci did not demonstrate synergy or antagonism between 2 microg/ml of GAR-936 and 0.25 microg/ml of quinupristin/dalfopristin.
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ABSTRACT: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are increasingly isolated from clinical specimens. One hundred clinical isolates of enterococci (E. casseliflavus/E. flavescens [n = 10], E. faecalis [n = 34], E. faecium [n = 43], E. avium [n = 1], E. gallinarum [n = 11], and E. raffinosus [n = 1]) were examined for the presence of vanA, vanB, vanC-1, and vanC-2/3 genes by a single multiplex PCR performed directly with colonies from blood agar plates. Six previously characterized VRE strains which carry either vanA, vanB, vanC-1, or vanC-2 genes were used as controls. To discriminate among van genes, the PCR amplicons were digested with MspI and were electrophoresed on agarose gels. Because of significant sequence homology between vanC-2 and vanC-3 genes, this assay is unable to discriminate these genes from each other; therefore, these are referred to as vanC-2/3 genes. PCR products were detected in 63 of the 100 clinical isolates. The restriction fragment length patterns were consistent with vanA for 10 strains, vanB for 30 strains, vanC-1 for 12 strains, vanC-2 for 6 strains, and vanA and vanC-1 for 1 strain. The vancomycin MICs for the isolates with restriction fragment length patterns consistent with vanA and vanB were all > and = 64 micrograms/ml. The vancomycin MICs for the isolates with restriction fragment length patterns consistent with vanC-1 or vanC-2 were 4 to 8 micrograms/ml. The vancomycin MICs for the isolates from which no PCR amplicons were produced were 2 to 4 micrograms/ml. A PCR product was produced in four isolates (vancomycin MICs, 4 to > 256 micrograms/ml) with restriction fragment length patterns differing from those for the control vanA, vanB, vanC-1, and vanC-2 isolates. DNA sequencing of these amplicons revealed that two of the four isolates had nucleic acid sequences which were closely related to the published sequence for the vanB gene and two had nucleic acid sequences which were closely related to the published sequence for the vanC-2 and vanC-3 genes. Multiplex PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism appears to be a useful and convenient method for rapidly detecting and discriminating genotypes for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. in the clinical laboratory. In instances in which unusual restriction fragment patterns of PCR amplicons occur, DNA sequencing can be performed to discriminate van genotypes.Journal of Clinical Microbiology 03/1997; 35(3):703-7. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The in vivo pharmacodynamic activities of two glycylcyclines (GAR-936 and WAY 152,288) were assessed in an experimental murine thigh infection model in neutropenic mice. Mice were infected with one of several strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, or Klebsiella pneumoniae. Most infections were treated with a twice-daily dosing schedule, with administration of 0.75 to 192 mg of GAR-936 or WAY 152,288 per kg of body weight. A maximum-effect dose-response model was used to calculate the dose that produced a net bacteriostatic effect over 24 h of therapy. This dose was called the bacteriostatic dose. More extensive dosing studies were performed with S. pneumoniae 1199, E. coli ATCC 25922, and K. pneumoniae ATCC 43816, with doses being given as one, two, four, or eight equal doses over a period of 24 h. The dosing schedules were designed in order to minimize the interrelationship between the various pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters studied. These parameters were time above 0.03 to 32 times the MIC, area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), and maximum concentration of drug in serum (C(max)). The bacteriostatic dose remained essentially the same, irrespective of the dosing frequency, for S. pneumoniae 1199 (0.3 to 0.9 mg/kg/day). For E. coli ATCC 25922 and K. pneumoniae ATCC 43816, however, more frequent dosing led to lower bacteriostatic doses. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated dose-dependent elimination half-lives of 1.05 to 2.34 and 1.65 to 3.36 h and serum protein bindings of 59 and 71% for GAR-936 and WAY 152,288, respectively. GAR-936 and WAY 152,288 were similarly effective against the microorganisms studied, with small differences in maximum effect and 50% effective dose. The glycylcyclines were also similarly effective against tetracycline-sensitive and tetracycline-resistant bacteria. Time above a certain factor (range, 0.5 to 4 times) of the MIC was a better predictor of in vivo efficacy than C(max) or AUC for most organism-drug combinations. The results demonstrate that in order to achieve 80% maximum efficacy, the concentration of unbound drug in serum should be maintained above the MIC for at least 50% of the time for GAR-936 and for at least 75% of the time for WAY 152,288. The results of these experiments will aid in the rational design of dose-finding studies for these glycylcyclines in humans.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 05/2000; 44(4):943-9. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The in vitro activity of daptomycin was compared with those of vancomycin, linezolid, and quinupristin-dalfopristin against a variety (n = 203) of gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis (MRSA and MRSE, respectively), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA). Overall, daptomycin was more active against all organisms tested, except Enterococcus faecium and VISA, against which its activity was similar to that of quinupristin-dalfopristin. In time-kill studies with MRSA, MRSE, VRE, and VISA, daptomycin demonstrated greater bactericidal activity than all other drugs tested, killing > or =3 log CFU/ml by 8 h. Daptomycin may be a potential alternative drug therapy for multidrug-resistant gram-positive organisms and warrants further investigation.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 05/2000; 44(4):1062-6. · 4.57 Impact Factor