Body composition studies using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are being increasingly reported in the literature. When DXA body composition measurements are combined with body water studies, stable bromide is often administered to measure extracellular water. Bromine attenuates x-rays significantly more than soft tissue and so could affect DXA body composition analysis. DXA scans were performed on 26 adults (12 F, 14 M) before and after the intravenous injection of 3 g sodium bromide (NaBr). No significant differences were noted pre- and post-NaBr infusion for whole-body fat mass, fat-free soft tissue mass and bone mineral content. These findings were supported by a simple mathematical analysis of the likely effect of the sodium bromide infusion. This showed that when 3 g NaBr was introduced into the body, the effect on fat mass estimates was expected to be marginally less than the precision of the DXA technique.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A method was developed for measuring total body bone mineral (TBBM) and lean body mass in vivo using dual-photon absorptiometry. The entire body was scanned in a rectilinear raster (transverse speed of 1 cm/s and longitudinal steps of 2.5 cm) with a modified nuclear medicine scanner and conventional nuclear counting electronics. The source was 153Gd (1 Ci) with principal photopeaks at 44 and 100 keV. The scan time was about 70 min with an absorbed dose of under 1 mrem. The low dose allows measurements to be repeated at frequent intervals or used on children. Short-term (months) precision of TBBM was about 1.5% for isolated skeletons and about 2% on normal human subjects. Long-term (years) precision on skeletons was under 3%. The precision of percent fat was 0.9%, which would lead to an error of less than 1% in the TBBM. Geometry of measurements also had minimal (and correctable) influence on the accuracy of results. The accuracy (1 standard error of estimate) of TBBM on isolated skeletons (N = 5) was 36 g (equivalent to about 13 g of Ca) with a correlation coefficient of 0.99; this error amounts to about 1--1.5% in normal adults; 2% in older women, and 2.5% in osteoporotic females. The dual-photon absorptiometry method could be implemented in many nuclear medicine departments to follow skeletal changes during growth and aging or to follow the course of a disease or treatment.
Calcified Tissue International 02/1981; 33(4):353-9. DOI:10.1007/BF02409455 · 3.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The advent of effective treatments and the opportunity to precisely and accurately measure bone mass have probably been the greatest advances in the field of osteoporosis in the last decade. Bone densitometry has become the most widespread noninvasive method for the detection of osteoporosis and to provide advice on risk of future fractures. It has achieved an unquestioned role in clinical decision making for the management of osteoporotic patients.
Seminars in Nuclear Medicine 08/1997; 27(3):197-209. DOI:10.1016/S0001-2998(97)80024-4 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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