These studies provide evidence that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiates and accelerates regulatory volume decrease (RVD) following hypotonic challenge by an autocrine mechanism involving ATP release and signaling. In wild-type CFTR-expressing cells, CFTR augments constitutive ATP release and enhances ATP release stimulated by hypotonic challenge. CFTR itself does not appear to conduct ATP. Instead, ATP is released by a separate channel, whose activity is potentiated by CFTR. Blockade of ATP release by ion channel blocking drugs, gadolinium chloride (Gd(3+)) and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'disulfonic acid (DIDS), attenuated the effects of CFTR on acceleration and potentiation of RVD. These results support a key role for extracellular ATP and autocrine and paracrine purinergic signaling in the regulation of membrane ion permeability and suggest that CFTR potentiates ATP release by stimulating a separate ATP channel to strengthen autocrine control of cell volume regulation.
"ATP is also released from non-neuronal cells through vesicular transport . Additional mechanisms for ATP release has been reported including release through stretch-activated channels, voltage-dependent and multi-channel anion transporter or permeases , cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) , and P2X7 receptor associated connexin and pannexin hemichannels . ATP release from mouse neutrophil occurs through connexin-43 hemi channels . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), an ATP-gated cation channel, is unique among all other family members because of its ability to respond to various stimuli and to modulate pro-inflammatory signaling. The activation of P2X7R in immune cells is absolutely required for mature interleukin -1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-18 production and release. Lung alveoli are lined by the structural alveolar epithelial type I (AEC I) and alveolar epithelial type II cells (AEC II). AEC I plays important roles in alveolar barrier protection and fluid homeostasis whereas AEC II synthesizes and secrete surfactant and prevents alveoli from collapse. Earlier studies indicated that purinergic P2X7 receptors were specifically expressed in AEC I. However, their implication in alveolar functions has not been explored. This paper reviews two important signaling pathways of P2X7 receptors in surfactant homeostatsis and Acute Lung Injury (ALI). Thus, P2X7R resides at the critical nexus of alveolar pathophysiology.
"Many studies have reported the involvement of ABC proteins in ATP release –: CFTR-regulated ATP release has been observed in a variety of native cell types, including erythrocytes and epithelial cells , , whilst transfection of carcinoma cells with CFTR or reconstitution of CFTR into lipid bilayers is associated with the appearance cAMP-dependent ATP release –. The mechanism by which CFTR facilitates the ATP release from muscle remains controversial: some authors have proposed that ATP leaves the cell through CFTR itself, whilst others propose that CFTR regulates the activity of a separate ATP channel protein , , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have shown that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is involved in ATP release from skeletal muscle at low pH. These experiments investigate the signal transduction mechanism linking pH depression to CFTR activation and ATP release, and evaluate whether CFTR is involved in ATP release from contracting muscle. Lactic acid treatment elevated interstitial ATP of buffer-perfused muscle and extracellular ATP of L6 myocytes: this ATP release was abolished by the non-specific CFTR inhibitor, glibenclamide, or the specific CFTR inhibitor, CFTR(inh)-172, suggesting that CFTR was involved, and by inhibition of lactic acid entry to cells, indicating that intracellular pH depression was required. Muscle contractions significantly elevated interstitial ATP, but CFTR(inh)-172 abolished the increase. The cAMP/PKA pathway was involved in the signal transduction pathway for CFTR-regulated ATP release from muscle: forskolin increased CFTR phosphorylation and stimulated ATP release from muscle or myocytes; lactic acid increased intracellular cAMP, pCREB and PKA activity, whereas IBMX enhanced ATP release from myocytes. Inhibition of PKA with KT5720 abolished lactic-acid- or contraction-induced ATP release from muscle. Inhibition of either the Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger (NHE) with amiloride or the Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger (NCX) with SN6 or KB-R7943 abolished lactic-acid- or contraction-induced release of ATP from muscle, suggesting that these exchange proteins may be involved in the activation of CFTR. Our data suggest that CFTR-regulated release contributes to ATP release from contracting muscle in vivo, and that cAMP and PKA are involved in the activation of CFTR during muscle contractions or acidosis; NHE and NCX may be involved in the signal transduction pathway.
PLoS ONE 11/2012; 7(11):e50157. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0050157 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Several ABC proteins are potential candidates for mediating ATP release including the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The CFTR was initially thought to mediate ATP release from several cell types including erythrocytes (Sprague et al., 1998); however, later work indicated that the CFTR regulates rather than mediates the release of ATP (Sugita et al., 1998; Watt et al., 1998; Braunstein et al., 2001). Controlled vesicular exocytosis is implicated in ATP release from many cell types including epithelial and endothelial cells (Bodin and Burnstock, 2001; Knight et al., 2002). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Controlled ATP release has been demonstrated from many neuronal and non-neuronal cell types. Once released, extracellular ATP acts on cells in a paracrine manner via purinergic receptors. Considerable evidence now suggests that extracellular nucleotides, signaling via P2 receptors, play important roles in bone homeostasis modulating both osteoblast and osteoclast function. In this study, we demonstrate that mouse osteoclasts and their precursors constitutively release ATP into their extracellular environment. Levels were highest at day 2 (precursor cells), possibly reflecting the high number of red blood cells and accessory cells present. Mature osteoclasts constitutively released ATP in the range 0.05-0.5 pmol/ml/cell. Both osteoclasts and osteoblasts express mRNA and protein for the P2X7 receptor. We found that in osteoclasts, expression levels are fourfold higher in mature cells relative to precursors, whilst in osteoblasts expression remains relatively constant during differentiation. Selective antagonists (0.1-100 μM AZ10606120, A438079, and KN-62) were used to determine whether this release was mediated via P2X7 receptors. AZ10606120, A438079, and KN-62, at 0.1-10 μM, decreased ATP release by mature osteoclasts by up to 70, 60, and 80%, respectively. No differences in cell viability were observed. ATP release also occurs via vesicular exocytosis; inhibitors of this process (1-100 μM NEM or brefeldin A) had no effect on ATP release from osteoclasts. P2X7 receptor antagonists (0.1-10 μM) also decreased ATP release from primary rat osteoblasts by up to 80%. These data show that ATP release via the P2X7 receptor contributes to extracellular ATP levels in osteoclast and osteoblast cultures, suggesting an important additional role for this receptor in autocrine/paracrine purinergic signaling in bone.
Frontiers in Endocrinology 03/2012; 3:41. DOI:10.3389/fendo.2012.00041
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