Early DAT is distinguished from aging by high-dimensional mapping of the hippocampus. Dementia of the Alzheimer type.
ABSTRACT To determine the feasibility of using high-dimensional brain mapping (HDBM) to assess the structure of the hippocampus in older human subjects, and to compare measurements of hippocampal volume and shape in subjects with early dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) and in healthy elderly and younger control subjects.
HDBM represents the typical structures of the brain via the construction of templates and addresses their variability by probabilistic transformations applied to the templates. Local application of the transformations throughout the brain (i.e., high dimensionality) makes HDBM especially valuable for defining subtle deformities in brain structures such as the hippocampus.
MR scans were obtained in 18 subjects with very mild DAT, 18 healthy elderly subjects, and 15 healthy younger subjects. HDBM was used to obtain estimates of left and right hippocampal volume and eigenvectors that represented the principal dimensions of hippocampal shape differences among the subject groups.
Hippocampal volume loss and shape deformities observed in subjects with DAT distinguished them from both elderly and younger control subjects. The pattern of hippocampal deformities in subjects with DAT was largely symmetric and suggested damage to the CA1 hippocampal subfield. Hippocampal shape changes were also observed in healthy elderly subjects, which distinguished them from healthy younger subjects. These shape changes occurred in a pattern distinct from the pattern seen in DAT and were not associated with substantial volume loss.
Assessments of hippocampal volume and shape derived from HDBM may be useful in distinguishing early DAT from healthy aging.
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ABSTRACT: Automated computer classification (ACC) techniques are needed to facilitate physician's diagnosis of complex diseases in individual patients. We provide an example of ACC using computational techniques within the context of cross-sectional analysis of magnetic resonance images (MRI) in neurodegenerative diseases, namely Alzheimer's dementia (AD). In this paper, the accuracy of our ACC methodology is assessed when presented with real life, imperfect data, i.e., cohorts of MRI with varying acquisition parameters and imaging quality. The comparative methodology uses the Jacobian determinants derived from dense deformation fields and scaled grey-level intensity from a selected volume of interest centered on the medial temporal lobe. The ACC performance is assessed in a series of leave-one-out experiments aimed at separating 75 probable AD and 75 age-matched normal controls. The resulting accuracy is 92% using a support vector machine classifier based on least squares optimization. Finally, it is shown in the Appendix that determinants and scaled grey-level intensity are appreciably more robust to varying parameters in validation studies using simulated data, when compared to raw intensities or grey/white matter volumes. The ability of cross-sectional MRI at detecting probable AD with high accuracy could have profound implications in the management of suspected AD candidates.IEEE transactions on medical imaging. 05/2008; 27(4):509-20.
Article: MRI shows more severe hippocampal atrophy and shape deformation in hippocampal sclerosis than in Alzheimer's disease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: While hippocampal atrophy is a key feature of both hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), the pathology underlying this finding differs in these two conditions. In AD, atrophy is due primarily to loss of neurons and neuronal volume as a result of neurofibrillary tangle formation. While the etiology of HS is unknown, neuron loss in the hippocampus is severe to complete. We compared hippocampal volume and deformations from premortem MRI in 43 neuropathologically diagnosed cases of HS, AD, and normal controls (NC) selected from a longitudinal study of subcortical ischemic vascular disease (IVD Program Project). HS cases (n = 11) showed loss of neurons throughout the rostral-caudal extent of the hippocampus in one or both hemispheres. AD cases (n = 24) met NIA-Reagan criteria for high likelihood of AD. Normal control cases (n = 8) were cognitively intact and showed no significant AD or hippocampal pathology. The mean hippocampal volumes were significantly lower in HS versus AD groups (P < .001). Mean shape deformations in the CA1 and subiculum differed significantly between HS versus AD, HS versus NC, and AD versus NC (P < .0001). Additional study is needed to determine whether these differences will be meaningful for clinical diagnosis of individual cases.International journal of Alzheimer's disease. 01/2011; 2011:483972.
Article: Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins Predict Longitudinal Hippocampal Degeneration in Early-stage Dementia of the Alzheimer Type.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: Biomarkers are needed to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of diagnosis, and also prognosis, in individuals with early Alzheimer disease (AD). Measures of brain structure and disease-related proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been proposed as biomarkers, yet relatively little is known about the relationships between such measures. The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between CSF Aβ and tau protein levels and longitudinal measures of hippocampal structure in individuals with and without very mild dementia of the Alzheimer type. DESIGN:: A single CSF sample and longitudinal magnetic resonance scans were collected. The CSF samples were assayed for tau, phosphorylated tau181 (p-tau181), Aβ1-42, and Aβ1-40 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Large-deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping was used to generate hippocampal surfaces, and a composite hippocampal surface (previously constructed from 86 healthy participants) was used as a structural reference. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS:: Thirteen participants with very mild AD (Clinical Dementia Rating, CDR 0.5) and 11 cognitively normal participants (CDR 0). INTERVENTION:: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: Initial and rate-of-change measures of total hippocampal volume and displacement of the hippocampal surface within zones overlying the CA1, subiculum, and CA2-4+DG cellular subfields, and their correlations with initial CSF measures. RESULTS:: Lower CSF Αβ1-42 levels and higher tau/Αβ1-42 and p-tau181/Αβ1-42 ratios were strongly correlated with decreases in hippocampal volume and measures of progressive inward deformations of the CA1 subfield in participants with early AD, but not in cognitively normal participants. CONCLUSIONS:: Despite the small sample size, we found that Αβ1-42 related and tau-related CSF measures were associated with hippocampal degeneration in individuals with clinically diagnosed early AD and may reflect an association with a common underlying disease mechanism.Alzheimer disease and associated disorders 12/2011; · 2.88 Impact Factor