Mitochondrial genomes of human helminths and their use as markers in population genetics and phylogeny.
ABSTRACT To date, over 100 complete metazoan mitochondrial (mt) genomes of different phyla have been reported. Here, we briefly summarise mt gene organisation in the Metazoa and review what is known of the mt genomes of nematodes and flatworms parasitic in humans. The availability of complete or almost complete mtDNA sequences for several parasitic helminths provides a rich source of genetic markers for phylogenetic analysis and study of genetic variability in helminth groups. Examples of the application of mtDNA in studies on Ascaris, Onchocerca, Schistosoma, Fasciola, Paragonimus, Echinostoma, Echinococcus and Taenia are described.
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ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences have enabled comparison of population genetics and evolution for numerous free-living and parasitic nematodes. Here we define the complete mt genome of Wuchereria bancrofti through analysis of isolates from Papua New Guinea, India and West Africa. Sequences were assembled for each isolate and annotated with reference to the mt genome sequence for Brugia malayi. The length of the W. bancrofti mt genome is approximately 13,637 nucleotides, contains 2 ribosomal RNAs (rrns), 22 transfer RNAs (trns), 12 protein-coding genes, and is characterized by a 74.6% AT content. The W. bancrofti mt gene order is identical to that reported for Onchocerca volvulus, Dirofilaria immitis, Setaria digitata and B. malayi. In addition to using translational start codons identified previously in the mt protein-coding genes of other filarial nematodes, W. bancrofti appears to be unique in using TGT as a translational start codon. Similarly, use of incomplete stop codons in mt protein-coding genes appears to be more common in W. bancrofti than in other human filarial parasites. The complete mt genome sequence reported here provides new genetic markers for investigating phylogenetic and geographic relationships between isolates, and assessing population diversity within endemic regions. The sequence polymorphism enables new strategies to monitor the progress of public health interventions to control and eliminate this important human parasite. We illustrate the utility of this sequence and single nucleotide polymorphisms by inferring the divergence times between the three W. bancrofti isolates, suggesting predictions into their origin and migration.Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 02/2012; 183(1):32-41. DOI:10.1016/j.molbiopara.2012.01.004 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE) and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene were used to genetically compare four species of echinostomes of human health importance. Fixed genetic differences among adults of Echinostoma revolutum, Echinostoma malayanum, Echinoparyphium recurvatum and Hypoderaeum conoideum were detected at 51-75% of the enzyme loci examined, while interspecific differences in CO1 sequence were detected at 16-32 (8-16%) of the 205 alignment positions. The results of the MEE analyses also revealed fixed genetic differences between E. revolutum from Thailand and Lao PDR at five (19%) of 27 loci, which could either represent genetic variation between geographically separated populations of a single species, or the existence of a cryptic (i.e. genetically distinct but morphologically similar) species. However, there was no support for the existence of cryptic species within E. revolutum based on the CO1 sequence between the two geographical areas sampled. Genetic variation in CO1 sequence was also detected among E. malayanum from three different species of snail intermediate host. Separate phylogenetic analyses of the MEE and DNA sequence data revealed that the two species of Echinostoma (E. revolutum and E. malayanum) did not form a monophyletic clade. These results, together with the large number of morphologically similar species with inadequate descriptions, poor specific diagnoses and extensive synonymy, suggest that the morphological characters used for species taxonomy of echinostomes in South-East Asia should be reconsidered according to the concordance of biology, morphology and molecular classification.Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 12/2010; 11(2):375-81. DOI:10.1016/j.meegid.2010.11.009 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study compared the genetic variation among 14 different geographical isolates of Opisthorchis viverrini sensu lato from Thailand and Lao PDR using sequence data for 2 mitochondrial DNA genes, the subunit 1 of NADH dehydrogenase gene (nad1) and cytochrome c oxidase gene (cox1). Four different nad1 haplotypes were detected among isolates, all of which were identical at the amino acid sequence level. Nucleotide sequence variation among 14 isolates ranged from 0 to 0.3% for nad1. Two different cox1 haplotypes were detected among isolates. These two haplotypes differed at 2 nucleotide positions, one of which resulted in a change in the amino acid sequence. Nucleotide sequence variation among isolates for cox1 ranged from 0 to 0.5%. Comparison of cox1 sequences of O. viverrini to those of other trematodes revealed nucleotide differences of 13-31%. A phylogenetic analysis of the cox1 sequence data revealed strong statistical support for a clade containing O. viverrini and 2 other species of opisthorchid trematodes; O. felineus and Clonorchis sinsensis.Parasitology 11/2008; 135(12):1479-86. DOI:10.1017/S0031182008005015 · 2.35 Impact Factor