The plant kingdom as a source of anti-ulcer remedies.
ABSTRACT Phytogenic agents have traditionally been used by herbalists and indigenous healers for the prevention and treatment of peptic ulcer. This article reviews the anti-acid/anti-peptic, gastro-protective and/or anti-ulcer properties of the most commonly employed herbal medicines and their identified active constituents. Botanical compounds with anti-ulcer activity include flavonoids (i.e. quercetin, naringin, silymarin, anthocyanosides, sophoradin derivatives) saponins (i.e. from Panax japonicus and Kochia scoparia), tannins (i.e. from Linderae umbellatae), gums and mucilages (i.e. gum guar and myrrh). Among herbal drugs, liquorice, aloe gel and capsicum (chilli) have been used extensively and their clinical efficacy documented. Also, ethnomedical systems employ several plant extracts for the treatment of peptic ulcer. Despite progress in conventional chemistry and pharmacology in producing effective drugs, the plant kingdom might provide a useful source of new anti-ulcer compounds for development as pharmaceutical entities or, alternatively, as simple dietary adjuncts to existing therapies.
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ABSTRACT: Chresta martii (Asteraceae) is a species widely used by the population of the Xingu region of Sergipe, Brazil, in the form of a decoction (aerial parts) for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. The study aims to assess the gastroprotective activity of organic extracts and semipurified fractions and identify the principal compounds present in C. martii responsible for such activity. The organic extracts (cyclohexane: ECCm, ethyl acetate: EACm, and ethanol: EECm) were obtained from the dried aerial parts (500 g) of C. martii. For evaluation of the gastroprotective activity of extracts (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg; p.o.), male Swiss Webster mice (25-30 g) were used which had gastric ulcers induced by indomethacin (40 mg/kg, s.c.) or ethanol (0.2 mL/animal; p.o.). Among the extracts evaluated, EACm exhibited significant (P < 0.05) gastroprotective activity in the models used. The fractionation of EACm was performed in a silica gel column 60 eluted with the following compounds: [chloroform-F1 yield (10%)], [chloroform/ethyl acetate (1/1)-F2 yield (6%)], [ethyl acetate-F3 yield (8%)], and [ethyl/methanol acetate (1/1)-F4 yield (5%)]. Of the fractions described above, the F1 (25 mg/kg; p.o.) had greater gastroprotective activity (P < 0.05) than that displayed by ranitidine (80 mg/kg; p.o.) in the ethanol-induced ulcer model. The refractionation of F1 produced 23 subfractions and from these two yellow amorphous compounds were obtained by recrystallization, Rf: 0.46 and 0.31 (ethyl acetate : chloroform 5 : 5). The compounds isolated were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR) and identified as flavones: chrysoeriol (yield: 0.43%) and 3',4'-dimethoxyluteolin (yield: 0.58%). Conclusion. Flavone 3',4'-dimethoxyluteolin is the principal compound present in the species C. martii and is probably responsible for gastroprotective activity observed in this species.Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2015; 2015:576495. DOI:10.1155/2015/576495 · 2.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (SC) continues to be used as a traditional folk medicine in Asia, especially for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders related to gastritis, diarrhea, enterocolitis and abnormal GI motility. Because GI disorders, especially abnormal GI motility, are major lifelong problems, we investigated the effects of SC on the pacemaker activity of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in murine small intestine and GI motility. Enzymatic digestions were used to dissociate ICCs from small intestines, and the whole-cell patch-clamp configuration was used to record potentials generated by cultured ICCs. In vivo effects of SC on GI motility were investigated by measuring the intestinal transit rate (ITR) of Evans blue in normal and GI motility dysfunction mice. SC extracts depolarized the membrane potentials of ICCs in a dose dependent manner. Pretreatment with Ca(2+) free solution or thapsigargin (a Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor in the endoplasmic reticulum) abolished the generation of pacemaker potentials by ICCs, and under these conditions, SC extract did not depolarize the membrane potentials of ICCs. In addition, membrane depolarizations were inhibited by intracellular GDPβS and by U-73122 (an active phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor). In normal mice, ITRs were significantly increased by SC extract (0.1-1g/kg, intragastrically (i.g.)) in a dose dependent manner. Also, SC extract significantly recovered the GI motility dysfunctions in acetic acid (AA)-injected and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, which are the GI motility animal models. SC extract modulates pacemaker potentials in ICCs in a dose dependent manner via external and internal Ca(2+) regulations, and via G protein and the PLC pathway. In addition, SC extract increased ITRs in normal and abnormal GI motility mice models. This study shows that SC extract offers a basis for the development of a prokinetic agent that prevents or alleviates GI motility dysfunctions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.Journal of ethnopharmacology 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.03.071 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study was performed to determine the anti-ulcer effects of ethanol extract of Parkia speciosa on Indomethacin induced peptic ulcer in Albino rats. Rats of female sex weighing between 150 g-200 g were used. Rats were divided into six groups with six rats in each group. Omeprazole (20 mg/kg) were used as a standard drug for this study. Parkia speciosa extract were given in three different doses comprised of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. Pre-treatment were done for 14 days and at the end of the 14th day, rats were kept fasted for 24 hours before administration of Indomethacin at 30 mg/kg. Administration of drugs was done orally. At the end of the study, rats were sacrificed and stomachs were open and stored in 10% formalin solution. The acidity of gastric juice, gastric mucosal lesion and histological changes were studied. Extracts of Parkia speciosa showed a significant (P<0.05) reduction in acidity of gastric juice as compared to the ulcer control group. Two doses of Parkia speciosa ethanol extract that is 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg showed significant (P<0.05) reduction in lesion length as compared to ulcer control group. Histological studies showed lesser collagen and fibrosis were present in tissue from rats treated with Parkia speciosa extract compared to tissues of rats from ulcer control group. INDRODUCTION: The ulcer is the open sore in the lining of the stomach or intestine, similar to mouth ulcers (stomatitis) and skin ulcer. Gastric ulcer is the ulcer which occurs in the stomach. Duodenal ulcer is the ulcer that occurs in the first part of the intestine. Peptic ulcer is the term used for either of the ulcers or both ulcers 1. The most common gastrointestinal disease is peptic ulcer disease (PUD) 2. Peptic ulcer occurs due to the reaction of acid and pepsin which is the digestive enzyme present in the stomach towards the mucosal lining of the stomach which leads to the excoriation of it 3 .International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 02/2015; 6(6 2):895-902. DOI:10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.6(2).1000-08 · 0.01 Impact Factor