Insulin suppresses transactivation by CAAT/enhancer-binding proteins beta (C/EBPbeta). Signaling to p300/CREB-binding protein by protein kinase B disrupts interaction with the major activation domain of C/EBPbeta.
ABSTRACT CAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in insulin-responsive tissues. We have found that a complex containing C/EBPbeta interacts with an insulin response sequence in the insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) gene and that a C/EBP-binding site can mediate effects of insulin on promoter activity. Here, we examined mechanisms mediating this effect of insulin. The ability of insulin to suppress promoter activity via a C/EBP-binding site is blocked by LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, but not by rapamycin, which blocks activation of p70(S6 kinase). Dominant negative phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase B (PKB) block the effect of insulin, while activated PKB suppresses promoter function via a C/EBP-binding site, mimicking the effect of insulin. Coexpression studies indicate that insulin and PKB suppress transactivation by C/EBPbeta, but not C/EBPalpha, and that N-terminal transactivation domains in C/EBPbeta are required. Studies with Gal4 fusion proteins reveal that insulin and PKB suppress transactivation by the major activation domain in C/EBPbeta (AD II), located between amino acids 31 and 83. Studies with E1A protein indicate that interaction with p300/CBP is required for transactivation by AD II and the effect of insulin and PKB. Based on a consensus sequence, we identified a PKB phosphorylation site (Ser(1834)) within the region of p300/CBP known to bind C/EBPbeta. Mammalian two-hybrid studies indicate that insulin and PKB disrupt interactions between this region of p300 and AD II and that Ser(1834) is critical for this effect. Signaling by PKB and phosphorylation of Ser(1834) may play an important role in modulating interactions between p300/CBP and transcription factors and mediate effects of insulin and related growth factors on gene expression.
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ABSTRACT: This study builds on the hypothesis put forth in Boeckx and Benítez-Burraco (2014), according to which the developmental changes expressed at the levels of brain morphology and neural connectivity that resulted in a more globular braincase in our species were crucial to understand the origins of our language-ready brain. Specifically, this paper explores the links between two well-known 'language-related' genes like FOXP2 and ROBO1 implicated in vocal learning and the initial set of genes of interest put forth in Boeckx and Benítez-Burraco (2014), with RUNX2 as focal point. Relying on the existing literature, we uncover potential molecular links that could be of interest to future experimental inquiries into the biological foundations of language and the testing of our initial hypothesis. Our discussion could also be relevant for clinical linguistics and for the interpretation of results from paleogenomics.Frontiers in Psychology 01/2014; 5:1324. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins are transcription factors that help to regulate a wide range of inflammatory mediators, as well as several key elements of energy metabolism. Because C/EBPs are expressed by rodent astrocytes and microglia, and because they are induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines that are chronically upregulated in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) cortex, we have investigated whether C/EBPs are expressed and upregulated in the AD cortex. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that C/EBPβ can be detected by Western blots in AD and nondemented elderly (ND) cortex, and that it is significantly increased in AD cortical samples. In situ, C/EBPβ localizes immunohistochemically to microglia. In microglia cultured from rapid autopsies of elderly patient's brains and in the BV-2 murine microglia cell line, we have shown that C/EBPβ can be upregulated by C/EBP-inducing cytokines or lipopolysaccharide and exhibits nuclear translocation possibly indicating functional activity. Given the known co-regulatory role of C/EBPs in pivotal inflammatory mechanisms, many of which are present in AD, we propose that upregulation of C/EBPs in the AD brain could be an important orchestrator of pathogenic changes.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86617. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The renin-angiotensin system is a major determinant of blood pressure regulation. It consists of a cascade of enzymatic reactions involving 3 components: angiotensinogen, renin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme , which generate angiotensin II as a biologically active product. Angiotensinogen is largely produced in the liver, acting as a major determinant of the circulating renin-angiotensin system, which exerts acute hemodynamic effects on blood pressure regulation. How the expression of angiotensinogen is regulated is not completely understood. Here, we hypothesize that angiotensinogen is regulated by forkhead transcription factor forkhead box class O1 (Foxo1), an insulin-suppressed transcription factor, and thereby controls blood pressure in mice. We generated liver-specific Foxo1 knockout mice, which exhibited a reduction in plasma angiotensinogen and angiotensin II levels and a significant decrease in blood pressure. Using hepatocyte cultures, we demonstrated that overexpression of Foxo1 increased angiotensinogen expression, whereas hepatocytes lacking Foxo1 demonstrated a reduction of angiotensinogen gene expression and partially impaired insulin inhibition on angiotensinogen gene expression. Furthermore, mouse angiotensinogen prompter analysis demonstrated that the angiotensinogen promoter region contains a functional Foxo1-binding site, which is responsible for both Foxo1 stimulation and insulin suppression on the promoter activity. Together, these data demonstrate that Foxo1 regulates hepatic angiotensinogen gene expression and controls plasma angiotensinogen and angiotensin II levels, modulating blood pressure control in mice.Hypertension 07/2014; · 7.63 Impact Factor