Confirmation of the DRB1-DQB1 loci as the major component of IDDM1 in the isolated founder population of Sardinia

University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
Human Molecular Genetics (Impact Factor: 6.68). 01/2001; 9(20):2967-72. DOI: 10.1093/hmg/9.20.2967
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT There is considerable uncertainty and debate concerning the application of linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping in common multifactorial diseases, including the choice of population and the density of the marker map. Previously, it has been shown that, in the large cosmopolitan population of the UK, the established type 1 diabetes IDDM1 locus in the HLA region could be mapped with high resolution by LD. The LD curve peaked at marker D6S2444, 85 kb from the HLA class II gene DQB1, which is known to be a major determinant of IDDM1. However, given the many unknown parameters underlying LD, a validation of the approach in a genetically distinct population is necessary. In the present report we have achieved this by the LD mapping of IDDM1 in the isolated founder population of Sardinia. Using a dense map of microsatellite markers, we determined the peak of LD to be located at marker D6S2447, which is only 6.5 kb from DQB1. Next, we typed a large number of SNPs defining allelic variation at functional candidate genes within the critical region. The association curve, with both classes of marker, peaked at the loci DRB1-DQB1. These results, while representing conclusive evidence that the class II loci DRB1-DQB1 dominate the association of the HLA region to type 1 diabetes, provide empirical support for LD mapping.

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Available from: Francesco Cucca, May 14, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The island of Sardinia shows a unique high incidence of several autoimmune diseases with multifactorial inheritance, particularly type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis. The prior knowledge of the genetic structure of this population is fundamental to establish the optimal design for association studies in these diseases. Previous work suggested that the Sardinians are a relatively homogenous population, but some reports were contradictory and data were largely based on variants subject to selection. For an unbiased assessment of genetic structure, we studied a combination of neutral Y-chromosome variants, 21 biallelic and 8 short tandem repeats (STRs) in 930 Sardinian males. We found a high degree of interindividual variation but a homogenous distribution of the detected variability in samples from three separate regions of the island. One haplogroup, I-M26, is rare or absent outside Sardinia and is very common (0.37 frequency) throughout the island, consistent with a founder effect. A Bayesian full likelihood analysis (BATWING) indicated that the time from the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of I-M26, was 21.0 (16.0-25.5) thousand years ago (KYA) and that the population began to expand 14.0 (7.8-22.0) KYA. These results suggest a largely pre-Neolithic settlement of the island with little subsequent gene flow from outside populations. Consequently, Sardinia is an especially attractive venue for case-control genome wide association scans in common multifactorial diseases. Concomitantly, the high degree of interindividual variation in the current population facilitates fine mapping efforts to pinpoint the aetiologic polymorphisms.
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have indicated that multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated and linked to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)/human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region of chromosome 6p21.3, but the exact location and nature of the primarily associated locus within the HLA complex is still controversial and largely presumptive. By linkage disequilibrium mapping, we have systematically investigated this chromosome region in the founder population of Sardinia to determine the relative associations of the various loci with MS. An overall 11.4 Mb region, which encompasses the whole HLA complex, was scanned with 19 microsatellite markers and with single nucleotide polymorphisms within 12 functional candidate genes and assessed for MS association using the extended transmission disequilibrium test (ETDT). A peak of association represented by the three adjacent DRB1 , - DQA1 and - DQB1 loci was detected in the class II region. Two additional less significant areas of association were detected, respectively, in the centromeric side of the class II region at the DPB1 locus and, telomeric of the classically defined class I loci, at the D6S1683 microsatellite. Conditional ETDT analysis indicated that these regions of association could be independent of each other. Within the main peak of association, DRB1 and DQB1 contribute to the disease association independently of each other whereas DQA1 had no detectable primary genetic effects. We evaluated the haplotype distribution at the region showing the strongest association and found five DQB1 - DRB1 haplotypes positively associated with MS in Sardinia. These consistently included all the haplotypes previously found associated with MS in the various human populations, thus supporting a primary effect of the products of these loci in MS. Overall these results are consistent with a multilocus model of the MHC encoded susceptibility to MS.
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    ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a common disease with a complex mode of inheritance. Its aetiology is underpinned by a major locus, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 1 ( IDDM1 ) in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region of chromosome 6p21, and an unknown number of loci of lesser individual effect. In linkage analyses IDDM1 is a single peak, but it is evident that the linkage is caused by allelic variation of three adjacent genes in a 75 kb region, namely the class II genes, HLA-DRB1 , - DQA1 and - DQB1 . However, even these three genes may not explain all of the HLA association. We investigated, in the founder population of Sardinia, whether non-DQ/DR polymorphic markers within a 9.452 Mb region encompassing the whole HLA complex further influence the disease risk, after taking into account linkage disequilibrium with the disease loci HLA-DQB1 , - DQA1 and - DRB1 . We generalized the conditional association test, the haplotype method, to detect marker associations that are independent of the main DR/DQ disease associations. Three regions were identified as risk modifiers. These associations were not only independent of the polymorphic exon 2 sequences of HLA-DQB1 , - DQA1 and - DRB1 , but also independent of each other. The individual contributions of these risk modifiers were relatively modest but their combined impact was highly significant. Together, alleles of single nucleotide polymorphisms at the DMB and DOB genes, and the microsatellite locus TNFc , identified ∼40% of Sardinian DR3 haplotypes as non-predisposing. This conditional analysis approach can be applied to any chromosome region involved in the predisposition to complex traits.
    Human Molecular Genetics 05/2001; · 6.68 Impact Factor