Mortality among women and men relative to unemployment, part time work, overtime work, and extra work: a study based on data from the Swedish twin registry.

National Institute for Working Life, SE-112 79 Stockholm, Sweden.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.22). 02/2001; 58(1):52-7.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To examine mortality before 70 years of age among women and men relative to unemployment, part time work, overtime work, and extra work. Age, marital status, children, smoking and alcohol habits, use of sleeping pills and tranquilisers, stress, shift work, personality factors, and long lasting or serious illness were taken into account as potential confounding factors.
The study group comprised a subcohort of the Swedish twin registry, people born in 1926-58. Data were based on a postal questionnaire of 1973 and on information from the Swedish Causes of Death Registry. All subjects reporting a main occupation were selected, 9500 women and 11 132 men, and mortality from all causes during 1973-96 was analysed. The subjects were treated as a sample from the general population regardless of the twinning.
Unemployment in 1973 among both women and men showed an association with increased mortality. The adjusted relative risk (RR) (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) was 1.98 (1.16 to 3.38), for women and 1.43 (0.91 to 2.25) for men. For the first 5 years of follow up, a threefold increase in risk was found for men (RR (95% CI) 3.29 (1.33 to 8.17)). The RR declined by time, but remained increased throughout the 24 year study period. In women overtime work of more than 5 hours a week was followed by an increased mortality rate (RR (95% CI) 1.92 (1.13 to 3.25)). A protective effect of moderate overtime work of a maximum 5 hours a week was shown for men (RR (95% CI) 0.58 (0.43 to 0.80)), whereas an increased mortality was indicated for part time work (RR (95% CI) 1.58 (0.91 to 2.77)) and extra work (work outside employment) of more than 5 hours a week (RR (95% CI) 1.29 (0.99 to 1.69)).
Unemployment and some time aspects of work were associated with subsequent mortality, even when controlling for social, behavioural, work, and health related factors. The idea that losing a job may have less importance for women than for men is not supported by this study.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in the subjective quality of life (QoL) and health state of unemployed people at the age of 45 and older in the city environment. The study also aimed at evaluating some social and demographic factors on the quality of life and health of the unemployed. A group of 454 unemployed people aged 45 and older, registered in labour offices in the city of Łódź, Poland were included in the study. Two groups were formed: short-term and long-term unemployed. QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-Bref questionnaire. The main problems formulated in the study were: Does QoL and health state decrease during the period of unemployment and in what aspects? What factors can modify the changes of QoL of the unemployed? The findings of the analysis indicate that unemployment entails many negative health consequences and the long-term stress connected with being out of work leads to the decline in the quality of life and worsening of mental state. The multidimensional effects of unemployment depend not only on the economic situation of the particular household, but also on perceived health status, personal relationships and the sense of ability to work.
    Applied Research in Quality of Life 01/2014; · 0.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several studies have shown a positive relationship between mortality and episodes of income decline, unemployment, or poverty shortly before death or in the more distant past. Our objective was to analyse the mortality effects of earlier income changes more generally, net of the overall level. We used Norwegian register data that included individual histories of annual labour income and focused on mortality among men aged 50-69 in 1990-2002. Men in this age group who, during the preceding 15 years, had experienced at least two substantial falls in income as well as at least one substantial increase, or vice versa, experienced an excess mortality of 17 per cent. For men who experienced fewer changes, there were only weak indications of excess mortality. Variation dominated by falls in income did not have a more adverse effect than variation dominated by rises.
    Population Studies 10/2013; · 1.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As detailed associations between personality and long work hours are unclear, we assessed associations between personality dimensions and overtime work among Japanese white-collar workers. From records of hours worked over 12 months by 267 office workers in an organization within the service industry, average overtime work hours per month and occurrence of excessive overtime was determined for each worker. Excessive overtime was defined as > 45 overtime work hours per month for at least one month. Responses to a questionnaire assessing socio-demographic and workplace-related factors and the Big Five personality test were analyzed. Associations between personality factors and overtime work were assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Low Extraversion was associated with excessive overtime work (OR 2.02, 95%CI 1.02 - 4.02, P = 0.04). It is suggested that workers with low Extraversion can't share work when busy to avoid excessive overtime. Personality factors should be considered in studies evaluating work time. Moreover, strengthening communication among workers with low Extraversion may reduce excessive overtime work and associated health problems.
    BMC Research Notes 03/2014; 7(1):180.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 19, 2014