Mortality among women and men relative to unemployment, part time work, overtime work, and extra work: a study based on data from the Swedish twin registry.
ABSTRACT To examine mortality before 70 years of age among women and men relative to unemployment, part time work, overtime work, and extra work. Age, marital status, children, smoking and alcohol habits, use of sleeping pills and tranquilisers, stress, shift work, personality factors, and long lasting or serious illness were taken into account as potential confounding factors.
The study group comprised a subcohort of the Swedish twin registry, people born in 1926-58. Data were based on a postal questionnaire of 1973 and on information from the Swedish Causes of Death Registry. All subjects reporting a main occupation were selected, 9500 women and 11 132 men, and mortality from all causes during 1973-96 was analysed. The subjects were treated as a sample from the general population regardless of the twinning.
Unemployment in 1973 among both women and men showed an association with increased mortality. The adjusted relative risk (RR) (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) was 1.98 (1.16 to 3.38), for women and 1.43 (0.91 to 2.25) for men. For the first 5 years of follow up, a threefold increase in risk was found for men (RR (95% CI) 3.29 (1.33 to 8.17)). The RR declined by time, but remained increased throughout the 24 year study period. In women overtime work of more than 5 hours a week was followed by an increased mortality rate (RR (95% CI) 1.92 (1.13 to 3.25)). A protective effect of moderate overtime work of a maximum 5 hours a week was shown for men (RR (95% CI) 0.58 (0.43 to 0.80)), whereas an increased mortality was indicated for part time work (RR (95% CI) 1.58 (0.91 to 2.77)) and extra work (work outside employment) of more than 5 hours a week (RR (95% CI) 1.29 (0.99 to 1.69)).
Unemployment and some time aspects of work were associated with subsequent mortality, even when controlling for social, behavioural, work, and health related factors. The idea that losing a job may have less importance for women than for men is not supported by this study.
Article: Job losses and accumulated number of broken partnerships increase risk of premature mortality in Danish men born in 1953.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To investigate how accumulation of job losses and broken partnerships affect the risk of premature mortality, and to study joint exposure to both events. Birth cohort study of 9789 Danish men born in 1953 with follow-up of events between the ages of 40 and 51. The adjusted hazard rates for premature mortality was 1.44 (95% CI = 1.15 to 1.80) for individuals with one job loss, 1.55 (1.13 to 2.13) for individuals with one broken partnership, and 2.15 (95% CI = 1.49 to 3.10) for individuals with two or more broken partnerships. Experience of at least one job loss increased the risk of premature mortality. The risk of premature mortality increased with the number of broken partnerships. There was no statistical interaction between job losses and broken partnerships.Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 06/2009; 51(6):708-13. · 1.88 Impact Factor
Article: History of unemployment predicts future elevations in C-reactive protein among male participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Unemployment is associated with risk of future morbidity and premature mortality. To examine whether unemployment history predicts future C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in male participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Unemployment, body mass index (BMI), and health behaviors were measured at 7, 10, and 15 years post-recruitment. CRP was measured at Years 7 and 15. Having a history of unemployment at Year 10 was associated with higher CRP at Year 15, independent of age, race, BMI, Year 7 CRP, Year 15 unemployment, and average income across Years 10-15. Poor health practices and depressive symptoms explained 22% of the association, but Year 10 unemployment history remained a significant predictor. Findings did not differ across age, race, education, or income. Discrete episodes of unemployment may have long-term implications for future CRP levels.Annals of Behavioral Medicine 10/2008; 36(2):176-85. · 4.20 Impact Factor
Article: Cognitive activation theory of stress—how are individual experiences mediated into biological systems?[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The cognitive activation theory of stress (CATS) offers a psychobiological explanation for the relationship between life events, from hassles in worklife to dramatic events, and individual health. It differs from other prevalent stress theories by offering a formal system of systematic definitions, it relies on cognitive formulations within learning theory, it offers a consistent pathophysiological model for health and disease, and it is valid across species and cultures. The aim of this paper was to compare CATS with other prevalent theories with respect to the relationships between worklife and health. The main concern was the comparison with the demand–control theory of Karasek & Theorell. A brief review is presented of interventions based on CATS positions, in particular interventions aimed at modifying patients’ expectations, as well as at attempts to prevent illness and disease in the working population.SJWEH Supplements. 01/2008;