A novel zidovudine uptake system in microglia.
ABSTRACT In the central nervous system (CNS), brain macrophages and microglia are the primary targets of productive human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection. Zidovudine (ZDV), a thymidine derivative, has been reported to reduce the progression of the disease and prolong survival in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS dementia complex. Although a restricted ZDV distribution has been observed in the CNS, its accumulation in brain parenchyma has not been examined. We have investigated the uptake properties of radiolabeled ZDV by a continuous rat microglia cell line (MLS-9) grown as a monolayer on an impermeable surface. Although the organic cations verapamil, mepiperphenidol, quinidine, cimetidine, and N(1)-methylnicotinamide moderately inhibited ZDV uptake, the organic cation probes tetraethylammonium and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium were weak inhibitors. ZDV uptake was significantly increased when the proton gradient was outward (pH(i) 6.3 < pH(o) 7.4; pH(i) approximately 7.1 < pH 8.0), whereas uptake decreased with extracellular acidification (pH(i) approximately 7.1 > pH(o) 6.0) or in the presence of the Na(+)/H(+) ionophore monensin. ZDV uptake was increased under depolarized membrane conditions (i.e., 138 mM K(+) in external medium) and decreased under hyperpolarized conditions (i.e., 2 mM K(+) in external medium), implying a membrane potential dependence. These results suggest that although ZDV transport system in microglia has some specificity features of an organic cation transporter, it involves a carrier, distinct from other cloned organic cation transporters, that is novel in its sensitivity to pH and membrane potential. This system may play a significant role in the transport of other weak organic cation substrates and/or metabolites in brain parenchyma.
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ABSTRACT: Organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily includes group of polyspecific transporters that mediate transport of large amphipathic, mostly anionic molecules across cell membranes of eukaryotes. OATPs/Oatps are involved in disposition and elimination of numerous physiological and foreign compounds. However, in non-mammalian species functional properties of Oatps remain unknown. We aimed to elucidate the role of Oatp1d1 in zebrafish to gain insights into the functional and structural evolution of the OATP1/Oatp1 superfamily. We show that diversification of the OATP1/Oatp1 family occurs after the emergence of jawed fish and that OATP1A/Oatp1a and OATP1B/Oatp1b subfamilies appeared at the root of tetrapods. The Oatp1d subfamily emerged in teleosts and is absent in tetrapods. The zebrafish Oatp1d1 is similar to mammalian OATP1A/Oatp1a and OATP1B/Oatp1b members, with the main physiological role in transport and balance of steroid hormones. Oatp1d1 activity is dependent upon pH gradient which could indicate bicarbonate exchange as a mode of transport. Our analysis of evolutionary conservation and structural properties revealed that: (i) H79 in the intracellular loop 3 is conserved within OATP1/Oatp1 family and is crucial for the transport activity; (ii) N-glycosylation impacts membrane targeting and is conserved within the OATP1/Oatp1 family with N122, N133, N499 and N512 residues involved; (iii) evolutionary conserved CRAC motif is important for membrane localization; and (iv) Oatp1d1 is present in dimeric and possibly oligomeric form in the cell membrane. In conclusion, we describe the first detailed characterization of a new Oatp transporter in zebrafish, offering important insights into the functional evolution of OATP1/Oatp1 family and the physiological role of Oatp1d1.Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human and other mammalian concentrative (Na(+)-linked) nucleoside transport proteins belong to a membrane protein family (CNT, TC 2.A.41) that also includes Escherichia coli H(+)-dependent nucleoside transport protein NupC. Here, we report the cDNA cloning and functional characterization of a CNT family member from the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. This 608 amino acid residue H(+)/nucleoside symporter, designated CaCNT, contains 13 predicted transmembrane domains (TMs), but lacks the exofacial, glycosylated carboxyl-terminus of its mammalian counterparts. When produced in Xenopus oocytes, CaCNT exhibited transport activity for adenosine, uridine, inosine and guanosine but not cytidine, thymidine or the nucleobase hypoxanthine. Apparent K(m) values were in the range 16-64 micro M, with V(max) : K(m) ratios of 0.58-1.31. CaCNT also accepted purine and uridine analogue nucleoside drugs as permeants, including cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine), a nucleoside analogue with anti-fungal activity. Electrophysiological measurements under voltage clamp conditions gave a H(+) to [(14)C]uridine coupling ratio of 1 : 1. CaCNT, obtained from logarithmically growing cells, is the first described cation-coupled nucleoside transporter in yeast, and the first member of the CNT family of proteins to be characterized from a unicellular eukaryotic organism.Yeast 07/2003; 20(8):661-75. · 1.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The primary aim of this study was to investigate intranasal (i.n.) administration as a potential route to enhance systemic and brain delivery of didanosine (ddI). A further aim was to investigate the potential use of chitosan nanoparticles as a delivery system to enhance the systemic and brain targeting efficiency of ddI following i.n. administration. Didanosine-loaded chitosan nanoparticles, were prepared through ionotropic gelation of chitosan with tripolyphosphonate anions, and characterized in terms of their size, drug loading, and in vitro release. The nanoparticles were administered i.n. to rats, compared to i.n. and intravenous (i.v.) administration of ddI in solution. The concentrations of ddI in blood, CSF, and brain tissues were analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy (UPLC/MS). The brain/plasma, olfactory bulb/plasma and CSF/plasma concentration ratios were significantly higher (P < 0.05) after i.n. administration of ddI nanoparticles or solution than those after i.v. administration of didanosine aqueous solution. The ratio of ddI concentration values of the nanoparticles to the solution at 180 min post-i.n. dosing was 2.1 and 1.9 in CSF and brain, respectively. Thus, both the i.n. route of administration and formulation of ddI in chitosan nanoparticles increased delivery of ddI to CSF and brain.Journal of Drug Targeting 12/2009; 18(5):381-8. · 2.77 Impact Factor