A novel zidovudine uptake system in microglia.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (Impact Factor: 3.97). 01/2001; 296(1):141-9.
Source: PubMed


In the central nervous system (CNS), brain macrophages and microglia are the primary targets of productive human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection. Zidovudine (ZDV), a thymidine derivative, has been reported to reduce the progression of the disease and prolong survival in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS dementia complex. Although a restricted ZDV distribution has been observed in the CNS, its accumulation in brain parenchyma has not been examined. We have investigated the uptake properties of radiolabeled ZDV by a continuous rat microglia cell line (MLS-9) grown as a monolayer on an impermeable surface. Although the organic cations verapamil, mepiperphenidol, quinidine, cimetidine, and N(1)-methylnicotinamide moderately inhibited ZDV uptake, the organic cation probes tetraethylammonium and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium were weak inhibitors. ZDV uptake was significantly increased when the proton gradient was outward (pH(i) 6.3 < pH(o) 7.4; pH(i) approximately 7.1 < pH 8.0), whereas uptake decreased with extracellular acidification (pH(i) approximately 7.1 > pH(o) 6.0) or in the presence of the Na(+)/H(+) ionophore monensin. ZDV uptake was increased under depolarized membrane conditions (i.e., 138 mM K(+) in external medium) and decreased under hyperpolarized conditions (i.e., 2 mM K(+) in external medium), implying a membrane potential dependence. These results suggest that although ZDV transport system in microglia has some specificity features of an organic cation transporter, it involves a carrier, distinct from other cloned organic cation transporters, that is novel in its sensitivity to pH and membrane potential. This system may play a significant role in the transport of other weak organic cation substrates and/or metabolites in brain parenchyma.

Download full-text


Available from: Lyanne C Schlichter, Mar 03, 2015
  • Source
    • "Overall, these results suggest that an inwardly directed proton gradient acts as the driving force for OATP2B1-mediated E3S uptake by Caco-2 and MDCKII/OATP2B1 cells. We also demonstrated that the method of intracellular acidification by NH 4 Cl preincubation, a technique we have described previously in different cell systems (Bendayan, et al., 1994;Hong, et al., 2001), can be useful in Caco-2 cells for examining the pH dependency of substrate transport. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human intestinal epithelium expresses a number of drug efflux and influx transporters that can restrict and/or facilitate intestinal drug uptake during absorption. Organic anion-transporting polypeptide 2B1 (OATP2B1), a multispecific organic anion uptake transporter localized at the brush-border membrane of intestinal epithelial cells, is known to transport many endogenous substrates (e.g., steroid conjugates) and xenobiotics (e.g., statins). At present, limited information is available on the mechanism of HIV protease inhibitor (PIs) intestinal uptake. In this study, we examined the interaction of PIs with the OATP2B1 transport system in Caco-2 cells, an in vitro model of human intestinal epithelium, and Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells stably transfected with OATP2B1. The expression of OATP2B1 transcript and protein was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analysis, respectively. Estrone-3-sulfate (E3S) uptake demonstrated biphasic saturation kinetics in Caco-2 cells, with dissociation constants (K(M)) of 6 +/- 2 microM and 1.5 +/- 0.2 mM. Several PIs potently inhibited OATP2B1-mediated transport in Caco-2 cells at clinically relevant IC(50) concentrations for ritonavir (0.93 microM), atazanavir (2.2 microM), lopinavir (1.7 microM), tipranavir (0.77 microM), and nelfinavir (2.2 microM). An inwardly directed proton gradient was identified as the driving force of E3S uptake through NH(4)Cl intracellular acidification studies with a H(+):E3S stoichiometry for OATP2B1 of 1:1. In contrast, although atazanavir and ritonavir uptake by Caco-2 cells was stimulated by low extracellular pH, this process was not mediated by OATP2B1 and was not affected by an outwardly directed H(+) gradient. Because OATP2B1 exhibits an increasing number of drug substrates, including several statins, alterations of its function by PIs could result in clinically significant drug-drug interactions in the intestine.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 09/2010; 334(3):1009-22. DOI:10.1124/jpet.110.166314 · 3.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "However, it is unlikely that BSAT1 is the microglia AZT transporter, since BSAT1 is not expressed in glial cells (Figure 2B, C). AZT is also transported via other organic anion transporters, including members of the organic anion transporter (OAT) family (Hong et al, 2001;Wada et al, 2000;Takeda et al, 2002). The availability of the 293/BSAT1(orf) cell line allows for future screening of other drugs that are potential substrates for the BSAT1 BBB active efflux transporter. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A novel organic anion transporter selectively expressed at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), originally designated BBB-specific anion transporter type 1 (BSAT1), and now classified as Slco1c1, has been cloned from a BBB genomics program as a partial cDNA; this study describes the cloning and expression of the full-length cDNA from a rat brain capillary cDNA library. Northern analysis revealed the selective expression of the transporter at the BBB, and the transporter was expressed after permanent transfection of human 293 cells with cDNA encoding either the full length or open reading frame mRNA. The full-length transporter cDNA was 2.6 kb, and the mRNA was highly expressed at the rat brain microvasculature, but not in kidney, liver, heart, or lung, or in glial cells or brain glial tumors. Blood-brain barrier-specific anion transporter type 1 expression in 293 cells was poor after the transfection of the full-length cDNA, whereas transporter expression in 293 cells was high after transfection of the open reading frame. The transporter showed asymmetric kinetic properties in comparison of the influx and efflux of model substrates, thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and estradiol-glucuronide (E2G). Thyroxine and T3 inhibited the influx of E2G, but E2G did not inhibit thyroxine influx, and T3 only weakly inhibited the influx of T4. Extracellular E2G stimulated the transefflux of intracellular T4. Blood-brain barrier-specific anion transporter type 1 is a novel organic anion transporter that is a sodium-independent exchanger that may participate in the active efflux of iodothyronines and steroid conjugates at the BBB.
    Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 03/2008; 28(2):291-301. DOI:10.1038/sj.jcbfm.9600538 · 5.41 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "In concert with this wide spectrum of biochemical modifications , and additionally to the brain–blood barrier (BBB) restrictive function, brain parenchyma cells can develop, upregulate or overexpress several selective and/or nonselective mechanisms that are able to prevent the intracellular drug accumulation [9] [10]. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a well-known member of the ATP binding cassette transporters superfamily, is the product of the multiple drug resistance 1 (MDR-1) gene. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neuronal damage after stroke-associated brain hypoxia is a leading cause of long-term disability and death. The refractoriness to therapeutic strategies for neuroprotection after 3 h post brain ischemia is poorly understood. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the multidrug resistance gene (MDR-1) product is normally expressed at blood-brain-barrier. P-gp neuronal expression has been demonstrated in refractory epilepsy and after brain ischemia. In this report we investigated the hypoxia-induced neuronal P-gp expression after local injection of CoCl(2) (1-200 mM) in the fronto-parietal cortex of male adult rats (Bregma -1.30 mm) by stereotaxic surgery. P-gp immunostaining of brain slides was analyzed using specific monoclonal antibodies and double immunolabeling was done with specific astrocytic and neuronal markers. Five days after injection of 1 mM CoCl(2), P-gp expression surrounding the lesion site was observed in neurons, astrocytic end-foot on capillary blood vessels and endothelial cells on blood vessels. Higher CoCl(2) doses (200 mM) resulted in additional P-gp immunostaining of the entire astrocytic and neuronal cytoplasm. Electron microscopy (EM) studies showed alterations in neurons as early as 6 h after the CoCl(2) injection. P-gp expression in hypoxic neurons and astrocytic end-foot could potentially impair of drugs access to the brain parenchyma thus suggesting the presence of two P-gp-based pumping systems (one in astrocytes and other in the hypoxic neurons) that are able to behave as a previously unnoticed obstacle for pharmacological strategies of neuroprotection.
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences 08/2007; 258(1-2):84-92. DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2007.03.004 · 2.47 Impact Factor
Show more