Mitral regurgitation in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy: relationship to obstruction and relief with myectomy.
ABSTRACT This study examined: 1) the impact of myectomy on postoperative mitral regurgitation (MR) and 2) the association between the severity of MR and the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradient.
For patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) and MR, controversy exists as to whether myectomy alone is sufficient in eliminating MR. Furthermore, the relationship between the degree of MR and the LVOT peak gradient has not been well defined.
We performed pre- and postoperative transthoracic as well as intraoperative transesophageal studies in 104 consecutive patients with HOCM undergoing septal myectomy. Left ventricular outflow tract gradient and the nature of MR were assessed.
In the 93 patients without independent mitral valve disease, a relationship was observed between MR severity and the LVOT gradient. Left ventricular outflow tract gradient (mean +/- standard deviation) for trivial, mild, moderate and severe MR were: 23.2+/-19.1, 43.8+/-25.4, 70.1+/-21.0 and 104+/-21.0 mm Hg (p < 0.001). Early postoperative, MR was absent or trivial in 80%, mild in 19% and moderate in 1%. None of these patients required additional mitral valve surgery. For patients with independent mitral valve disease (n = 11), five required mitral valve surgery as well as myectomy. The remainder had significant reductions in the degree of MR with myectomy alone.
For patients with HOCM and MR not due to independent mitral valve disease, myectomy significantly reduced the degree of MR, without requirement for additional mitral valve surgery. In these patients the severity of MR was directly related to the magnitude of the LVOT gradient.
Article: Prognostic significance of left atrial volume dilatation in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the prognostic role of left atrial (LA) volume in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), LA volume was measured at baseline and during follow-up in 140 patients with HCM. Unfavorable outcome, defined as occurrence of sudden death, heart transplantation, or invasive reduction of obstruction, developed in 16 patients. In patients with enlarged LA volume (>27 mL/m(2)), there was an increased risk for unfavorable outcome (P = .0152). Patients with normal LA volume at baseline in whom volume increased more than 3 mL per year (fast dilating LA volume) had a worse prognosis than patients with normal and stable volume (P < .001) and similar to patients with dilated LA volume at baseline (P = not significant). LA volume dilated at baseline, fast dilating LA volume, and New York Heart Association functional class were independent predictors of unfavorable outcome development (odds ratio: 11.453; P = .021, P = 2.019, P = .020, respectively). The assessment of LA volume at baseline and during follow-up adds information regarding prognosis in patients with HCM.Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 02/2009; 22(1):76-81. · 2.98 Impact Factor
Article: Echocardiography in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: usefulness of old and new techniques in the diagnosis and pathophysiological assessment.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is one of the most common inherited cardiomyopathy. The identification of patients with HCM is sometimes still a challenge. Moreover, the pathophysiology of the disease is complex because of left ventricular hyper-contractile state, diastolic dysfunction, ischemia and obstruction which can be coexistent in the same patient. In this review, we discuss the current and emerging echocardiographic methodology that can help physicians in the correct diagnostic and pathophysiological assessment of patients with HCM.Cardiovascular Ultrasound 03/2010; 8:7. · 1.26 Impact Factor
Article: American Society of Echocardiography clinical recommendations for multimodality cardiovascular imaging of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Endorsed by the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography.Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 05/2011; 24(5):473-98. · 2.98 Impact Factor