Hereditary tyrosinaemia type I: From basics to progress in treatment
ABSTRACT Hereditary tyrosinaemia type I is the most common of the diseases caused by defects in tyrosine metabolism. The underlying genetic defect is a mutation in the gene for fumarylacetate hydrolase (FAH), and more than 30 different mutations in this gene have been identified. The main clinical consequences of this defect include hepatic involvement, with a high risk for liver cancer, and renal tubular dysfunction. Restriction of phenylalanine and tyrosine from the diet along with supportive measures can ameliorate the symptoms, but cure has so far been possible only with liver transplantation. Recent discovery of a pharmacological treatment with a peroral inhibitor of tyrosine catabolic pathway, 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC), offers a new promising tool for the treatment of patients with hereditary tyrosinaemia type I. Mouse models of FAH deficiency have been successfully used in experimental gene therapy, and these studies indicate that future management of tyrosinaemia with a gene therapeutic approach may become feasible.
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ABSTRACT: To describe a patient with hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HHT-I) treated with 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC) who developed corneal opacities. A 14-month-old patient was diagnosed with HHT-I and began treatment with NTBC. Her serial ocular examinations were normal until age 4 years, when she developed ocular discomfort and was found to have bilateral, linear, branching subepithelial corneal opacities. Over the next 3 years, the extent of the opacities fluctuated, and increased opacities correlated with periods of poor compliance with a restricted protein diet. Serum tyrosine levels remained elevated at 238 to 602 umol/L (normal 26 to 83) throughout the duration of NTBC treatment. Corneal opacities are a potential consequence of NTBC treatment for HHT-I. The lesions probably result from elevated serum and ocular tyrosine levels due to inhibition of the tyrosine catabolic pathway and poor dietary compliance.American Journal of Ophthalmology 09/2002; 134(2):266-8. DOI:10.1016/S0002-9394(02)01532-5 · 4.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several acquired and congenital human disorders perturb the concentrations of delta-aminolevulinate (delta-ALA), creatinine and tyrosine in biological fluids. There is currently no facile, sensitive and specific method to measure these analytes simultaneously. We developed an LC-MS/MS method to quantify delta-ALA, creatinine and tyrosine in urine that requires minimal sample preparation and no derivatization. The method is also applicable to the analysis of tyrosine in plasma. All calibration plots were linear, with R(2)>or=0.996. Intra- and interday CVs were <10%. The limit of quantitation for delta-ALA was approximately 0.1 micromol/l, and for creatinine and tyrosine it was well below the lowest measured physiological concentrations. The method was applied to analyze urine from 75 healthy volunteers and 43 patients with hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT I). The mean urinary concentration of delta-ALA in patients (38+/-35 micromol/l, 53+/-30 mg/g creatinine) was higher than that measured in healthy subjects (5.5+/-2.6 micromol/l, 0.9+/-0.2 mg/g creatinine; p<0.001). Treatment with 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC), an inhibitor of an early step in tyrosine catabolism, decreased urinary delta-ALA (6.4+/-4.8 micromol/l, 13+/-24 mg/g creatinine; p<0.001). The average plasma tyrosine concentration in healthy volunteers (56+/-14 micromol/l) was within normal reference interval used in clinical practice. The method is simple, specific and precise and allows simultaneous quantitation of delta-ALA, creatinine and tyrosine at concentrations present under physiological or pathophysiological conditions.Clinica Chimica Acta 12/2004; 350(1-2):219-30. DOI:10.1016/j.cccn.2004.08.009 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The management of children with end-stage chronic liver disease and acute liver failure mandates a multidisciplinary approach and intense monitoring. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in developing specific and supportive medical measures, but studies and publications have mainly concerned adult patients. Therapeutic approaches to complications of end-stage chronic liver disease and acute liver failure (e.g. refractory ascites, hepatorenal syndrome, encephalopathy, and cerebral edema) that may be applied to children are reviewed in this article. Mild-to-moderate ascites should be managed by modest salt restriction and oral diuretic therapy in the first instance. Large volume paracentesis associated with colloid volume expansion and diuretic therapy may be effective for acute relief. Treatment of hepatorenal syndrome type 1 with vasopressin analogs (terlipressin) is recommended prior to liver transplantation in order to improve renal function. Prevention and treatment of chronic hepatic encephalopathy are directed primarily at controlling the events that may precipitate hepatic encephalopathy and at reducing ammonia generation and increasing its detoxification or removal. In addition to reduction of gut ammonia production using non-absorbable disaccharides such as lactulose and/or antibacterials such as neomycin, sodium benzoate may be used on a long-term basis to prevent, stabilize, or improve hepatic encephalopathy. The management of hepatic encephalopathy in acute liver failure is considerably more unsatisfactory; treatment is aimed at preventing brain edema and intracranial hypertension. Extracorporeal liver support devices are now used commonly in critically ill children with acute renal failure, advanced hepatic encephalopathy, cerebral edema, intracranial hypertension, and severe coagulopathy. Continuous renal replacement therapy could potentially help support patients until liver transplantation is performed or liver regeneration occurs. The Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS® or albumin dialysis) is the liver support system most frequently used worldwide in adults and appears to offer distinct advantages over hepatocyte-based systems. There are no specific medical therapies or devices that can correct all of the functions of the liver. Apart from a few metabolic diseases presenting with severe liver dysfunction for which specific medical therapies may preclude the need for liver transplantation, liver transplantation still remains the only definitive therapy in most instances of end-stage chronic liver disease and acute liver failure. Future research should focus on gaining a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for liver cell death and liver regeneration, as well as developments in hepatocyte transplantation and liver-directed gene therapy.Paediatric Drugs 01/2006; 8(1):1-13. DOI:10.2165/00148581-200608010-00001 · 1.72 Impact Factor