Laser partial epiglottidectomy as a treatment for obstructive sleep apnea and laryngomalacia.
ABSTRACT Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and laryngomalacia are two different entities. Occasionally, they may have a common etiology: an elongated, flaccid, and lax epiglottis that is displaced posteriorly during inspiration causing airway obstruction. Twenty-seven adults with a diagnosis of airway obstruction or OSA of various degrees, and 12 infants with severe stridor associated with frequent apneas due to laryngomalacia, who on fiberoptic examination were found to have a posteriorly displaced epiglottis, underwent partial epiglottidectomy with a CO2 laser. Their postoperative recovery was uneventful. Polysomnographic studies performed after operation in the adult patients demonstrated statistically significant improvement in 85% of the patients. In all the cases of laryngomalacia, stridor ceased permanently after surgery, together with complete cessation of the apneic episodes. This study demonstrates that similar pathophysiological mechanisms may be involved in both laryngomalacia and in OSA. Effective and relatively safe treatment can be achieved by partial resection of the epiglottis with a microlaryngoscopic CO2 laser.
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ABSTRACT: To identify and describe the features of laryngomalacia (LM) in a cohort of older children, with the goal of providing an approach to diagnosis and management of these patients. Laryngomalacia is a common congenital disorder characterized by decreased laryngeal tone, supraglottic collapse, and stridor during inspiration and is rarely seen in older children. However, the presence of LM in this population may be obscured by related but uncommon clinical features. Prospective collection and retrospective evaluation of older children with evidence of LM from 1998 to 2005. Two tertiary pediatric institutions. Prospective data collection of 239 patients with LM, including 222 with congenital LM and 17 diagnosed as having LM when they were older than 2 years and without a medical history of prior disease or symptoms-late-onset LM (mean age at onset, 6.6 years). Supraglottoplasty. Symptom improvement. Patients with late-onset LM were classified into 3 categories according to their symptom complex; those presenting with feeding-disordered LM (n = 7; mean age at onset, 3.3 years), sleep-disordered LM (n = 7; mean age at onset, 6.3 years), and exercise-induced LM (n = 3; mean age at onset, 15 years). Stridor was rarely present except in patients with exercise-induced LM during strenuous activity. Profound arytenoid redundancy and prolapse was discovered in all patients during nasolaryngeal endoscopy. Typical anatomic features of congenital LM (shortened aryepiglottic folds or retroflexed epiglottis) were not discovered. No patient had a history of neuromuscular disease. Supra-arytenoid reduction (supraglottoplasty) led to clinical cure in all patients (mean duration of follow-up, 7.4 months). Prior adenotonsillectomies were performed in 5 patients with sleep-disordered LM. This did not improve symptoms, and these patients displayed evidence of LM as the source of obstruction. Physicians should consider late-onset LM as a potential cause of feeding difficulties in toddlers, sleep apnea in children, and exercise intolerance in teenagers. As in infants with LM, supraglottoplasty improves late-onset disease.Archives of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 02/2008; 134(1):75-80. DOI:10.1001/archoto.2007.17 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The surgical treatment of sleep-related breathing disorders in children depends on the cause of the upper airway obstruction, which can be located in the nasal fossae, pharynx (the most frequent adenotonsillar hyperplasia), or larynx (laryngomalacia, cysts…), or can be multilevel, as in syndromic diseases. Adenotonsillectomy is the most frequently performed and effective (70–80%) procedure. The aim of this technique is to normalize nocturnal respiratory parameters and daytime symptoms, as well as to revert, or at least to halt, cardiovascular complications, neurocognitive disturbances, growth delay and enuresis, which can develop if treatment is not provided or is delayed. However, despite its effectiveness, adenotonsillectomy more frequently leads to complications in children with sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) than in those undergoing this procedure for other reasons. Moreover, 20–30% of children with SAHS who undergo adenotonsillectomy will show residual SAHS, and this percentage can increase to 70% in patients with severe SAHS, Down syndrome, craniofacial anomalies, neuromuscular disturbances, and morbid obesity.Consequently, both clinical and polysomnographic follow-up are recommended after adenotonsillectomy, especially in the latter risk group. Finally, other obstructive disorders of the upper airway must also be treated, although less frequently due to their lower incidence. These disorders include choanal atresia or stenosis, laryngomalacia, and hypoplasia of the midface or mandible. Tracheotomy will sometimes be required.Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española 12/2010; 61:53–59. DOI:10.1016/S0001-6519(10)71247-4
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ABSTRACT: A new operative technique for the treatment of floppy epiglottis is introduced in this report. Though its diagnosis is not so difficult by close observations using a flexible fiberscope, it is likely to be treated as an asthma attack or a paradoxical vocal cord movement. In previous reports of upper airway obstruction caused by adult floppy epiglottis: epiglottis prolapse during inspiration, the cause of this condition has been divided broadly into two categories: idiopathic cases and secondary cases. Partial or total epiglottectomy has been usually reported for the treatment of the relief of airway obstruction caused by a floppy epiglottis. It is very difficult to decide adequately how much volume of epiglottis to cut without postoperative sequelae. A V-shaped partial epiglottidectomy is described for its treatment. This technique is very easy, simple, and effective.Auris Nasus Larynx 09/2007; 34(3):409-11. DOI:10.1016/j.anl.2007.01.009 · 1.00 Impact Factor