The Combitube in elective surgery: a report of 200 cases.
ABSTRACT The Combitube has proved to be a valuable device for securing the airway in cases of difficult intubation. This study investigated the effectiveness of the Combitube in elective surgery during both mechanical and spontaneous ventilation.
Two hundred patients classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II, with normal airways, scheduled for elective surgery were randomly allocated into two groups: nonparalyzed, spontaneously breathing (n = 100); or paralyzed, mechanically ventilated (n = 100). After induction of general anesthesia and insertion of the Combitube, oxygen saturation, end-tidal carbon dioxide and isoflurane concentration, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate, as well as breath-by-breath spirometry data were obtained every 5 min.
In 97% of patients, it was possible to maintain oxygenation, ventilation, and respiratory mechanics, as well as hemodynamic stability during either mechanical or spontaneous ventilation for the entire duration of surgery. The duration of surgery was between 15 and 155 min.
The results of this study suggest that the Combitube is an effective and safe airway device for continued management of the airway in 97% of elective surgery cases.
Article: Combitube: a study for proper use.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The esophageal-tracheal Combitube((R)) (ETC; Kendall-Sheridan Catheter Corp., Argyle, NY) is a new device designed for difficult airways and emergency intubation. The manufacturer recommends that the ETC model 37F SA be used in patients with a height of between 122 and 152 cm. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ventilation is effective and reliable in patients taller than 152 cm by using the ETC 37F SA in the esophageal position. Also, we evaluated whether the airway protection is adequate and whether direct intubation of the trachea with the ETC inserted in the esophagus is possible. We studied 25 anesthetized, paralyzed adult patients, 150 to 180 cm in height. Methylene blue was given orally to all patients before anesthesia induction. Under direct vision, a ETC 37F SA was inserted in the esophagus of all patients. The pharyngeal balloon inflation volume was titrated to air leak and cuff pressures were measured. During surgery, a laryngoscope was inserted into the pharynx with the pharyngeal balloon deflated and the laryngoscopic view was evaluated by using the Cormack-Lehane scale. The presence of methylene blue in the hypopharynx was investigated by direct laryngoscopic vision. Ventilation was effective and reliable in all 25 patients who were 150 to 180 cm in height (average 169 +/- 7 cm). In addition, a direct relationship between the pharyngeal balloon volume and patient height was established (P < 0.05), by using linear regression models. The laryngoscopic view of the glottis was adequate to allow direct tracheal intubation. No trace of methylene blue was detected in the hypopharynx. The ETC Model 37F SA may be used in patients from 122 to 185 cm in height. The trachea could be directly intubated with the ETC in the esophageal position in patients with normal airways. The airway protection appears to be adequate. IMPLICATIONS: The esophageal-tracheal Combitube((R)) Model 37F SA (Kendall-Sheridan Catheter Corp., Argyle, NY) may be used in patients from 122 to 185 cm in height. The trachea could be directly intubated with the Combitube((R)) in esophageal position in patients with normal airways. The airway protection appears to be adequate.Anesthesia & Analgesia 04/2000; 90(4):958-62. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This is a retrospective study of patients whose tracheas were impossible to intubate on a previous occasion. There is a correlation between the degree of difficulty and the anatomy of the oropharynx in the same patient. The study was initially on obstetric patients but was extended to nonobstetric surgical patients in order to increase the number of cases investigated. The incidence of failed intubations in the obstetric group over a 3-year period was seven out of 1980 cases, whereas in the surgical group the results were six out of 13,380 patients. Any screening test which adds to our ability to predict difficulty in intubation must be welcomed, as failure to intubate can potentially lead to fatality.Anaesthesia 06/1987; 42(5):487-90. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We developed the esophageal tracheal combitube (ETC), a plastic twin-lumen tube, one lumen resembling an esophageal obturator airway (EOA), the other resembling an endotracheal airway (ETA). Ventilation is possible after either esophageal or tracheal placement of the ETC. A specially designed pharyngeal balloon replaces the mask of the EOA and provides sufficient seal, preventing the escape of air through the mouth and nose. The effectiveness of ventilation with the ETC in esophageal position was tested in a crossover study comparing ETC and ETA during routine operations in 31 patients. Blood gas measurements showed a significantly higher (P < .001) mean arterial oxygen tension during ventilation with the ETC. The reason for this is not yet clear. Preliminary investigations during CPR in 21 arrest patients indicate that the ETC is as effective as the ETA.Annals of Emergency Medicine 08/1987; · 4.29 Impact Factor