Frequency dependent alpha(2)-adrenoceptor mediated modulation of excitatory junction potentials in guinea-pig mesenteric artery.
ABSTRACT Excitatory junctional potentials (EJPs) elicited with brief duration (10 s) electrical field stimulation of guinea-pig mesenteric arteries were nearly abolished at all frequencies by pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid (PPADS, 30 microM) but persisted following reserpinization. Suramin (100 microM) enhanced EJPs at 0.2-0.5 Hz responses and reduced them at 2-32 Hz. Phentolamine (1 microM) and yohimbine (0.1 microM) enhanced EJPs at 0.2-8 Hz but not at 16-32 Hz. Oxymetazoline (0.3 microM) reduced EJPs at 0.2-0.5 Hz but not at 1-32 Hz. Following reserpinization, EJPs were enhanced at 0.2-2 Hz but not at 4-32 Hz. Clonidine (0.1 microM) was without effect at all frequencies in control arteries but reduced EJPs at 0.2-2 Hz in reserpine-treated arteries. In conclusion, pre-junctional alpha(2)-adrenoceptors modulate ATP release during low frequency, brief duration sympathetic nerve stimulation.
Article: PI3K and PKC contribute to membrane depolarization mediated by alpha2-adrenoceptors in the canine isolated mesenteric vein.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Norepinephrine (NE), a classic neurotransmitter in the sympathetic nervous system, induces vasoconstriction of canine isolated mesenteric vein that is accompanied by a sustained membrane depolarization. The mechanisms underlying the NE-elicited membrane depolarization remain undefined. In the present study we hypothesized that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase C (PKC) are involved in the electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced slow membrane depolarization (SMD) in canine isolated mesenteric vein. EFS (0.1-2 Hz, 0.1 ms, 15V, 10 s)-induced changes in the membrane potential were recorded with a conventional intracellular microelectrode technique and evaluated in the absence and presence of inhibitors of neuronal activity, alpha-adrenoceptors, membrane ion channels, PI3K, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (InsP3) receptors, and PKC. Activation of PI3Kgamma and PKCzeta in response to exogenous NE and clonidine in the absence and presence of receptor and kinase inhibitors were also determined. Contractile responses to NE and clonidine (0.05 - 10 microM) were significantly diminished in the presence of yohimbine (0.1 microM). Exogenous NE (0.1 microM) and clonidine (1 microM) elicited SMD. The resting membrane potential of canine mesenteric vein smooth muscle cells was -68.8 +/- 0.8 mV. EFS elicited a biphasic depolarization comprised of excitatory junction potentials and SMD that are purinergic and adrenergic in nature, respectively. The magnitude of the SMD in response to EFS at 0.5 Hz was 9.4 +/- 0.7 mV. This response was reduced by 65-98% by the fast Na+ channel inhibitor tetrodotoxin (1 microM), by the inhibitor of N-type Ca2+ channels omega-conotoxin GVIA (5 nM), the non-selective alpha-adrenoceptor blocker phentolamine (1 microM), the selective alpha2-adrenoceptor blocker yohimbine (0.1 microM), the ion channel inhibitors niflumic acid (NFA, 100 microM), 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB, 30 microM), 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS, 200 microM), and Gd3+ (30 microM), and the PI3K inhibitors wortmannin (100 nM) and LY-294002 (10 microM). The SMD remained unchanged in the presence of the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nicardipine (1 microM) and the InsP3 receptor blockers 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate (2APB, 50 microM) and xestospongin C (3 microM). The inhibitor of PKC chelerythrine (1 microM), but not calphostin C (10 microM), diminished the SMD. Exogenous NE and clonidine (1 microM each) activated both PI3Kgamma and PKCzeta, and the activation of these kinases was abolished by preincubation of tissue with the alpha2-adrenoceptor blocker yohimbine. Neuronally-released NE stimulates smooth muscle alpha2-adrenoceptors and activates PI3K and atypical PKC in the canine mesenteric vein. Events downstream of PKC lead to SMD and vasoconstriction. This represents a novel pathway for NE-induced membrane depolarization in a vascular smooth muscle preparation.BMC Physiology 02/2005; 5:9.