Taxanes: the genetic toxicity of paclitaxel and docetaxel in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster.
ABSTRACT In this study, the taxanes, paclitaxel and docetaxel were investigated for genotoxicity in the wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster. These relatively new drugs are used in cancer therapy and show great promise in the treatment of a variety of cancers. Their major cellular target is the alpha,beta-tubulin dimer but, unlike other spindle poisons, they stabilize microtubules by a shift towards assembly, producing nonfunctional microtubule bundles. The Drosophila wing Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) provides a rapid means to evaluate agents able to induce gene mutations and chromosome aberrations, as well as rearrangements related to mitotic recombination. We applied the standard version of SMART (with normal bioactivation) and a variant version with increased cytochrome P450-dependent biotransformation capacity. In the standard assay, docetaxel was found to be aneuploidogenic; this was effectively abolished by a high cytochrome P450-dependent detoxification capacity. This suggests, as previously reported, the involvement of this family of enzymes in the detoxification of docetaxel rather than in its activation. In contrast, paclitaxel was clearly non-genotoxic at the same (millimolar) concentrations as used for docetaxel in both crosses. The weak responsiveness of SMART assays to aneugenic compounds, the weaker ligand and assembly action of paclitaxel and the more rapid reversibility of the microtubules formed with this compound, may have caused the negative response observed in the present study.
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ABSTRACT: The somatic mutation and recombination test in Drosophila melanogaster was applied to analyze the mutagenic and recombinagenic activity of the chemotherapeutic drugs cisplatin, paclitaxel, and 5-fluorouracil, comparing the effects observed in combinatory treatments with those observed in single administrations. The results obtained in two different genotypes allowed to quantitatively and qualitatively estimate the contribution of genotoxic effects. The results obtained with the individual drug treatments showed that cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil were genotoxic, being able to increase the frequency of total spots on both genotypes. While cisplatin preferentially induced DNA damage of recombinational origin, all the damages induced by 5-fluorouracil were caused by gene and/or chromosome mutations, and the aneuploidogenic compound paclitaxel was not genotoxic. The combination of these drugs does not exert a synergist genotoxic effect in both genotypes compared to the single-agent administration. Instead, it was observed a modification in the proportion of mutation and recombination to the final genotoxicity observed. The antiproliferative activity of PAC could be responsible for the non-synergic genotoxic effect observed. Based on our results it is possible to suggest that cisplatin/paclitaxel/5-fluorouracil treatment regimen cannot impose a higher risk of the development of genotoxicity-associated secondary tumors in comparison to their individual applications.Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 11/2010; 48(11):3120-4. · 2.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The genotoxicity associated with air pollution in the city of Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), was assessed in November (spring) and January (summer). We applied the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster in its standard version with normal bioactivation (ST) and in its variant with increased cytochrome P450-dependent biotransformation capacity (HB). The data indicated the genotoxicity of TSP and PM10 collected in November, in both ST and HB crosses. The genotoxic activity of the PM10 material in the spring sample was exclusively associated with the induction of mitotic recombination, whereas the TSP genetic toxicity was due to both recombinational as well as point and/or chromosomal mutation events. Considering PM10 collected in January, a positive response--100% (17.10 m3/ml) concentration--was observed in the HB cross, which was not detected in the ST cross.Environmental Pollution 02/2008; 151(1):47-52. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies have added paclitaxel (PAC) to traditional cisplatin (CIS) regimen to treat squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. The target of these antineoplastic agents is nuclear DNA for CIS and microtubules for PAC, although it is not restricted to malignant cells. In this study, the genotoxicity of the combined treatment of PAC and CIS was investigated using the standard version of the wing Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster. Quantitative and qualitative genotoxic effects of these compounds were estimated by comparing wing spot frequencies in marker-heterozygous to balancer-heterozygous flies. Two different concentrations of PAC (0.0025 and 0.005mM) and CIS (0.025 and 0.05mM) as well as combinations of them were employed. The results demonstrated that the spindle poison PAC alone was not genotoxic in this test system, while CIS was able to induce a high incidence of DNA damage in both genotypes, mainly related to somatic recombination. The data obtained for the combined treatments showed that its genotoxicity varied with the concentrations used. In small concentrations the number of total spots induced by combination was reduced in relation to CIS 0.025mM just for marker-heterozygous flies, showing that somatic recombination was the prevalent event involved. At higher concentrations the combined treatment showed significant reductions in the frequencies of large single spots, for both genotypes, and twin spots for marker-heterozygous flies, but did not significantly reduce the total spots frequency in either genotype. The data suggest that aneugenic activity of PAC could be responsible for the reduction in the genotoxicity of CIS.Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 02/2010; 696(2):139-43. · 3.90 Impact Factor