Lipoic acid prevents suppression of connective tissue proliferation in the rat liver induced by n-3 PUFAs. A pilot study.
ABSTRACT As previously shown, dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) suppress connective tissue proliferation in the rat liver wound concurrent with an elevated level of lipid peroxidation. The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of alpha-lipoic acid (LA), a natural anti-oxidant, on these effects of n-3 PUFAs. Rats were fed with a commercial pellet diet (control group) or with diets enriched with 10% of sunflower oil (n-6 group) or 10% of fish oil (n-3 group) for 8 weeks followed by addition of LA to the same diets for 10 days. Then a liver thermic wound was induced and the administration of LA was continued for 6 days. The proliferation of the connective tissue, the level of lipid peroxidation and their peroxidizability and the content of prostaglandins E2 and F2alpha were measured in the liver wounds. LA prevented the suppression of connective tissue proliferation in the healing wound induced by n-3 PUFAs, avoided the increase in peroxidation of lipids, reduced peroxidizability of lipids and modulated the decrease in PGE2 and PGF2alpha. The results indicate that dietary LA may prevent the suppression of liver wound healing induced by n-3 PUFAs.
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ABSTRACT: Although considerable effort has been directed toward the mapping of peptide epitopes by autoantibodies, the role of nonprotein molecules has been less well studied. The immunodominant autoantigen in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), E2 components of pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes (PDC-E2), has a lipoate molecule bonded to the domain to which autoantibodies are directed. We examined sera from patients with PBC (n = 105), primary sclerosing cholangitis (n = 70), and rheumatoid arthritis (n = 28) as well as healthy volunteers (n = 43) for reactivity against lipoic acid. The lipoic acid hapten specificity of the reactive antibodies in PBC sera was determined following incubation of aliquots of the sera with human serum albumin (HSA), lipoylated HSA (HSA-LA), PDC-E2, lipoylated PDC-E2, polyethylene glycol (PEG), lipoylated PEG, free lipoic acid, and synthetic molecular mimics of lipoic acid. Anti-lipoic acid specific antibodies were detected in 81% (79 of 97) of antimitochondrial antibody (AMA)-positive patients with PBC but not in controls. Two previously unreported specificities in AMA-positive sera that recognize free lipoic acid and a carrier-conjugated form of lipoic acid were also identified. We hypothesize that conjugated form(s) of native or xenobiotic lipoic acid mimics contribute to the initiation and perpetuation of autoimmunity by at first breaking self-tolerance and participating in subsequent determinant spreading. The variability in the immunoreactive carrier/lipoate conjugates provides an experimental framework on which potential mechanisms for the breakdown of self-tolerance following exposure to xenobiotics can be investigated. The data have implications for patients taking lipoic acid as a dietary supplement.Gastroenterology 12/2003; 125(6):1705-13. · 12.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The first suggestion that physical exercise results in free radical-mediated damage to tissues appeared in 1978, and the past three decades have resulted in a large growth of knowledge regarding exercise and oxidative stress. Although the sources of oxidant production during exercise continue to be debated, it is now well established that both resting and contracting skeletal muscles produce reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. Importantly, intense and prolonged exercise can result in oxidative damage to both proteins and lipids in the contracting myocytes. Furthermore, oxidants can modulate a number of cell signaling pathways and regulate the expression of multiple genes in eukaryotic cells. This oxidant-mediated change in gene expression involves changes at transcriptional, mRNA stability, and signal transduction levels. Furthermore, numerous products associated with oxidant-modulated genes have been identified and include antioxidant enzymes, stress proteins, DNA repair proteins, and mitochondrial electron transport proteins. Interestingly, low and physiological levels of reactive oxygen species are required for normal force production in skeletal muscle, but high levels of reactive oxygen species promote contractile dysfunction resulting in muscle weakness and fatigue. Ongoing research continues to probe the mechanisms by which oxidants influence skeletal muscle contractile properties and to explore interventions capable of protecting muscle from oxidant-mediated dysfunction.Physiological Reviews 11/2008; 88(4):1243-76. · 30.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The paper describes preparation and biological characterization of the solid hybrid biomaterial that was designed for cell-targeted lipid delivery in healing tissues. The material referred to as 'solid emulsion gel' combines a protein-stabilized lipid emulsion and a hydrogel structure in a single compartment. The potential of the omega-3 (n-3)-fatty acids rich solid emulsion gel for tissue repair applications was investigated at the macro-, micro-, molecular and gene expression levels, using human fibroblasts and endothelial cells and a porcine model of full-thickness wounds. Being non-cytotoxic in vitro and in vivo, the biomaterial was found to affect cell metabolism, modulate expression of certain genes, stimulate early angiogenesis and promote wound repair in vivo. The neovascular response in vivo was correlated with upregulated expression of the genes involved in lipid transport (e.g. adipophilin), anti-apoptosis (e.g. heat shock proteins, haem oxygenase 1) and angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor, placental growth factor). Collectively, the results of this study provide first evidence that the angiogenic response provided by solid emulsion gel-mediated delivery of n-3 fatty acids is an alternative to the topical administration of exogenous growth factors or gene therapy, and can be advantageously used for the stimulation of tissue repair in complex wounds.Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 10/2008; 2(7):383-93. · 2.83 Impact Factor