Experience of severe fatigue long after stroke and its relation to depressive symptoms and disease characteristics
ABSTRACT Although the experience of abnormal fatigue is recognised as a major disabling symptom in many chronic neurological diseases, little is known about the persistence of severe fatigue after an abrupt neurological incident like a stroke. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to test whether the experience of severe fatigue persists long after a stroke has occurred, and to assess the relation between experienced fatigue and levels of physical impairment and depression. Ninety stroke outpatients and 50 controls returned mailed questionnaires. Compared to age-matched controls, a significantly larger proportion (16 vs. 51%) of the stroke respondents experienced severe fatigue, while 20% of the patients and 16% of the controls had elevated depression symptom scores. The time which had elapsed since the stroke occurred could not explain levels of fatigue. In the control group, the number of depressive symptoms explained most of the variance in levels of fatigue, while impairment of locomotion explained most of the variance in the stroke group.
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ABSTRACT: Many stroke survivors suffer from poststroke fatigue (PSF) and poststroke depression (PSD), indicating the importance of increasing the base of knowledge about the mechanisms underlying these sequelae. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether activation of the kynurenine (KYN) pathway predicts subsequent fatigue or depression in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Acute serum levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), tryptophan (TRP) catabolites (TRYCATs), and competing amino acids, as well as subsequent fatigue and depression, were measured in 45 stroke patients. TRP index [=100 × TRP / (tyrosine + valine + phenylalanine + leucine + isoleucine)] was significantly lower in patients with a Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) score of ≥4 at 12 months than in those with an FSS score of <4 (p = 0.039). Furthermore, the serum level of kynurenic acid in the acute stroke phase was significantly higher in patients with an FSS of score ≥4 at 18 months than in those with an FSS score of <4 (p = 0.026). These findings indicate that stroke patients with PSF have a lower bioavailability of TRP for 5-HT synthesis in the brain in the acute stroke phase. However, they also appear to have greater neuroprotective potential in that phase. In contrast to PSF, no predictors of PSD were found. These findings together with those of previous studies suggest that the immune response and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activation that follows AIS can predict PSF but not PSD.Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 03/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12031-014-0272-0 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To explore the potential relationship between fatigue following strokes and poststroke mood, cognitive dysfunction, disability, and infarct site and to determine the predictive factors in the development of poststroke fatigue (PSF) following minor infarcts. Ninety-nine functionally active patients aged less than 70 years with a first, nondisabling stroke (NIH Stroke Scale score ≤6 in acute phase and ≤3 after 6 months, modified Rankin Scale score ≤1 at 6 months) were assessed during the acute phase and then at 6 (T1) and 12 months (T2) after their stroke. Scores in the Fatigue Assessment Inventory were described and correlated to age, gender, neurologic and functional impairment, lesion site, mood scores, neuropsychological data, laboratory data, and quality of life at T1 and T2 using a multivariate logistic regression analysis in order to determine which variables recorded at T1 best predicted fatigue at T2. As many as 30.5% of the patients at T1 and 34.7% at T2 (11.6% new cases between T1 and T2) reported fatigue. At both 6 and 12 months, there was a significant association between fatigue and a reduction in professional activity. Attentional-executive impairment, depression, and anxiety levels remained associated with PSF throughout this time period, underlining the critical role of these variables in the genesis of PSF. There was no significant association between the lesion site and PSF. This study suggests that attentional and executive impairment, as well as depression and anxiety, may play a critical role in the development of PSF.Neurology 09/2012; 79(14):1422-7. DOI:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31826d5f3a · 8.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background. Fatigue after stroke is common and distressing to patients. Aims. Our aims were to explore patients' perceptions of post-stroke fatigue, including the causes of fatigue and the factors that alleviate fatigue, in a mixed methods study. Results. We interviewed 15 patients who had had a stroke and were inpatients on stroke rehabilitation wards. A substantial proportion of patients reported that their fatigue started at the time of their stroke. Various different factors were reported to improve fatigue, including exercise, good sleep, rehabilitation and rest. Fatigue influences patients' sense of "control" after their stroke. Conclusion. Our results are consistent with the possibility that poststroke fatigue might be triggered by factors that occur at the time of the stroke (e.g., the stroke lesion itself, or admission to hospital) and then exacerbated by poor sleep and boredom. These factors should be considered when developing complex interventions to improve post-stroke fatigue.01/2012; 2012(2090-8105):863031. DOI:10.1155/2012/863031