Age and origin of the FCMD 3'-untranslated-region retrotransposal insertion mutation causing Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy in the Japanese population.
ABSTRACT Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), an autosomal recessive disorder with a high prevalence in the Japanese population, is characterised by severe muscular dystrophy associated with brain malformation (cortical dysgenesis) and mental retardation. In Japan, 87% of FCMD-bearing chromosomes carry a 3-kb retrotransposal insertion of tandemly repeated sequences within the disease gene recently identified on chromosome 9q31, and most of them share a common founder haplotype. FCMD is the first human disease known to be caused primarily by an ancient retrotransposal integration. By applying two methods for the study of linkage disequilibrium between flanking polymorphic markers and the disease locus, and of its decay over time, the age of the insertion mutation causing FCMD in Japanese patients is calculated to be approximately 102 generations (95% confidence interval: 86-117 g), or slightly less. The estimated age dates the most recent common ancestor of the mutation-bearing chromosomes back to the time (or a few centuries before) the Yayoi people started migrating to Japan from the Korean peninsula. This finding makes the molecular population genetics of FCMD understandable in the context of Japan's history and the founder effect consistent with the prevalent theory on the origins of the modern Japanese population.
- SourceAvailable from: Hava Peretz[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The type II and type III mutations at the FXI locus, which cause coagulation factor XI deficiency, have high frequencies in Jewish populations. The type III mutation is largely restricted to Ashkenazi Jews, but the type II mutation is observed at high frequency in both Ashkenazi and Iraqi Jews, suggesting the possibility that the mutation appeared before the separation of these communities. Here we report estimates of the ages of the type II and type III mutations, based on the observed distribution of allelic variants at a flanking microsatellite marker (D4S171). The results are consistent with a recent origin for the type III mutation but suggest that the type II mutation appeared >120 generations ago. This finding demonstrates that the high frequency of the type II mutation among Jews is independent of the demographic upheavals among Ashkenazi Jews in the 16th and 17th centuries.The American Journal of Human Genetics 05/1999; 64(4):1071-5. · 11.20 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To test the reliability of linkage-disequilibrium analysis for gene mapping, we compared physical distance and linkage disequilibrium among seven polymorphisms in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) region on chromosome 5. Three of them lie within the APC gene, and two lie within the nearby MCC (mutated in colon cancer) gene. One polymorphism lies between the two genes, and one is likely to be 5' of MCC. Five of these polymorphisms are newly reported. All polymorphisms were typed in the CEPH kindreds, yielding 179-205 unrelated two-locus haplotypes. Linkage disequilibrium between each pair of polymorphisms is highly correlated with physical distance in this 550-kb region (correlation coefficient -.80, P < .006). This result is replicated in both the Utah and non-Utah CEPH kindreds. There is a tendency for greater disequilibrium among pairs of polymorphisms located within the same gene than among other pairs of polymorphisms. Trigenic, quadrigenic, three-locus, and four-locus disequilibrium measures were also estimated, but these measures revealed much less disequilibrium than did the two-locus disequilibrium measures. A review of 19 published disequilibrium studies, including this one, shows that linkage disequilibrium nearly always correlates significantly with physical distance in genomic regions > 50-60 kb but that it does not do so in smaller genomic regions. We show that this agrees with theoretical predictions. This finding helps to resolve controversies regarding the use of disequilibrium for inferring gene order. Disequilibrium mapping is unlikely to predict gene order correctly in regions < 50-60 kb in size but can often be applied successfully in regions of 50-500 kb or so in size. It is convenient that this is the range in which other mapping techniques, including chromosome walking and linkage mapping, become difficult.The American Journal of Human Genetics 06/1994; 54(5):884-98. · 11.20 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Linkage disequilibrium, D, between a polymorphic disease and mapped markers can, in principle, be used to help find the map position of the disease gene. Likelihoods are therefore derived for the value of D conditional on the observed number of haplotypes in the sample and on the population parameter Nc, where N is the effective population size and c the recombination fraction between the disease and marker loci. The likelihood is computed explicitly for the case of two loci with heterozygote superiority and, more generally, by computer simulations assuming a steady state of constant population size and selective pressures or neutrality. It is found that the likelihood is, in general, not very dependent on the degree of selection at the loci and is very flat. This suggests that precise information on map position will not be obtained from estimates of linkage disequilibrium.The American Journal of Human Genetics 05/1994; 54(4):705-14. · 11.20 Impact Factor