Age and origin of the FCMD 3'-untranslated-region retrotransposal insertion mutation causing Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy in the Japanese population.
ABSTRACT Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), an autosomal recessive disorder with a high prevalence in the Japanese population, is characterised by severe muscular dystrophy associated with brain malformation (cortical dysgenesis) and mental retardation. In Japan, 87% of FCMD-bearing chromosomes carry a 3-kb retrotransposal insertion of tandemly repeated sequences within the disease gene recently identified on chromosome 9q31, and most of them share a common founder haplotype. FCMD is the first human disease known to be caused primarily by an ancient retrotransposal integration. By applying two methods for the study of linkage disequilibrium between flanking polymorphic markers and the disease locus, and of its decay over time, the age of the insertion mutation causing FCMD in Japanese patients is calculated to be approximately 102 generations (95% confidence interval: 86-117 g), or slightly less. The estimated age dates the most recent common ancestor of the mutation-bearing chromosomes back to the time (or a few centuries before) the Yayoi people started migrating to Japan from the Korean peninsula. This finding makes the molecular population genetics of FCMD understandable in the context of Japan's history and the founder effect consistent with the prevalent theory on the origins of the modern Japanese population.
- SourceAvailable from: Joshua Lee[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction: Antisense oligonucleotide (AON) therapy is a form of treatment for genetic or infectious diseases using small, synthetic DNA-like molecules called AONs. Recent advances in the development of AONs that show improved stability and increased sequence specificity have led to clinical trials for several neuromuscular diseases. Impressive preclinical and clinical data are published regarding the usage of AONs in exon-skipping and splice modulation strategies to increase dystrophin production in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and survival of motor neuron (SMN) production in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Areas covered: In this review, we focus on the current progress and challenges of exon-skipping and splice modulation therapies. In addition, we discuss the recent failure of the Phase III clinical trials of exon 51 skipping (drisapersen) for DMD. Expert opinion: The main approach of AON therapy in DMD and SMA is to rescue ('knock up' or increase) target proteins through exon skipping or exon inclusion; conversely, most conventional antisense drugs are designed to knock down (inhibit) the target. Encouraging preclinical data using this 'knock up' approach are also reported to rescue dysferlinopathies, including limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B, Miyoshi myopathy, distal myopathy with anterior tibial onset and Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy.Expert opinion on biological therapy 03/2014; · 3.22 Impact Factor
Article: Antisense Therapy in Neurology[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Antisense therapy is an approach to fighting diseases using short DNA-like molecules called antisense oligonucleotides. Recently, antisense therapy has emerged as an exciting and promising strategy for the treatment of various neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorders. Previous and ongoing pre-clinical and clinical trials have provided encouraging early results. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), Huntington’s disease (HD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), dysferlinopathy (including limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2B; LGMD2B, Miyoshi myopathy; MM, and distal myopathy with anterior tibial onset; DMAT), and myotonic dystrophy (DM) are all reported to be promising targets for antisense therapy. This paper focuses on the current progress of antisense therapies in neurology.Journal of Personalized Medicine. 08/2013; 3(3):http://www.mdpi.com/2075-4426/3/3/144.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To identify gene mutations in patients with dystroglycanopathy and prove pathogenicity of those mutations using an in vitro cell assay. We performed whole-exome sequencing on 20 patients, who were previously diagnosed with dystroglycanopathy by immunohistochemistry and/or Western blot analysis. We also evaluated pathogenicity of identified mutations for phenotypic recovery in a DAG1-knockout haploid human cell line transfected with mutated DAG1 complementary DNA. Using exome sequencing, we identified compound heterozygous missense mutations in DAG1 in a patient with asymptomatic hyperCKemia and pathologically mild muscular dystrophy. Both mutations were in the N-terminal region of α-dystroglycan and affected its glycosylation. Mutated DAG1 complementary DNAs failed to rescue the phenotype in DAG1-knockout cells, suggesting that these are pathogenic mutations. Novel mutations in DAG1 are associated with asymptomatic hyperCKemia with hypoglycosylation of α-dystroglycan. The combination of exome sequencing and a phenotype-rescue experiment on a gene-knockout haploid cell line represents a powerful tool for evaluation of these pathogenic mutations. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.Neurology 12/2014; · 8.30 Impact Factor