Biochemical evidence of crossed cerebellar diaschisis in terms of nitric oxide indicators and lipid peroxidation products in rats during focal cerebral ischemia.
ABSTRACT Cerebral hypoperfusion in the contralateral cerebellar hemisphere after stroke is interpreted as a functional and metabolic depression, possibly caused by a loss of excitatory afferent inputs on the corticopontocerebellar pathway terminating in the cerebellar gray matter. This phenomenon is defined as crossed cerebellar diaschisis and can be diagnosed clinically by positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, brain magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography in terms of regional cerebral blood flow or metabolic rate of oxygen measurements.
In the present study, nitric oxide indicators (nitrite and cyclic guanosine monophosphate) and lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde and conjugated dienes) were measured in rat cerebral cortices and cerebella after permanent right middle cerebral artery occlusion in order to assess the crossed cerebellar diaschisis.
Nitrite values in ipsilateral cortex were significantly higher than those in contralateral cortex at 10 (P < 0.001) and 60 (P < 0.05) min of ischemia but no significant changes were observed in both cerebellum compared to the 0 min values. In both cerebral cortex and cerebellum cGMP levels at 10 and 60 min were significantly increased (P < 0.001). This increase was marked in ipsilateral cortex and contralateral cerebellum when compared with opposite cortex and cerebellum (P < 0.001). MDA values in ipsilateral cortex were significantly higher than those in contralateral cortex at 60 min of ischemia (P < 0.05). Contralateral cerebellar MDA values were found significantly higher than those in ipsilateral cerebellum at 0 (P<0.001) and 60 (P < 0.05) min of ischemia. In ipsilateral cortex, conjugated diene values at 0, 10, 60 min of ischemia were higher than those in contralateral cortex. On the other hand 0, 10, 60 min conjugated diene levels in contralateral cerebellum were significantly higher than those in ipsilateral cerebellum (P < 0.001).
These findings support the interruption of the corticopontocerebellar tract as the mechanism of the crossed cerebellar diaschisis.
- Methods in Enzymology 02/1984; 105:331-7. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Carbon monoxide, an activator of guanylyl cyclase, is formed by the action of the enzyme heme oxygenase. By in situ hybridization in brain slices, discrete neuronal localization of messenger RNA for the constitutive form of heme oxygenase throughout the brain has been demonstrated. This localization is essentially the same as that for soluble guanylyl cyclase messenger RNA. In primary cultures of olfactory neurons, zinc protoporphyrin-9, a potent selective inhibitor of heme oxygenase, depletes endogenous guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP). Thus, carbon monoxide, like nitric oxide, may be a physiologic regulator of cGMP. These findings, together with the neuronal localizations of heme oxygenase, suggest that carbon monoxide may function as a neurotransmitter.Science 02/1993; 259(5093):381-4. · 31.03 Impact Factor
Article: Diaschisis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Following acute, localized lesions of the central nervous system, arising from any cause, there are immediate depressions of neuronal synaptic functions in other areas of the central nervous system remote from the lesion. These remote effects result from deafferentation, a phenomenon known as "diaschisis". After an interval of time, which will vary directly with the severity of the lesion, functional recovery occurs due to synaptic reactivation of neurones. This is favourably influenced by rehabilitation. Diaschisis most commonly manifests itself by such neurological signs as impaired consciousness or cognitive impairments including dementia, dyspraxias, dystaxias, dysphasias, incoordination and sensory neglect. The nature of diaschisis has been demonstrated by widespread depressions of local cerebral blood flow and metabolism extending far beyond the anatomical lesion. Recovery of function is associated with recovery of local perfusion and metabolism.Neurological Research 01/1994; 15(6):362-6. · 1.18 Impact Factor