Biochemical evidence of crossed cerebellar diaschisis in terms of nitric oxide indicators and lipid peroxidation products in rats during focal cerebral ischemia.
ABSTRACT Cerebral hypoperfusion in the contralateral cerebellar hemisphere after stroke is interpreted as a functional and metabolic depression, possibly caused by a loss of excitatory afferent inputs on the corticopontocerebellar pathway terminating in the cerebellar gray matter. This phenomenon is defined as crossed cerebellar diaschisis and can be diagnosed clinically by positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, brain magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography in terms of regional cerebral blood flow or metabolic rate of oxygen measurements.
In the present study, nitric oxide indicators (nitrite and cyclic guanosine monophosphate) and lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde and conjugated dienes) were measured in rat cerebral cortices and cerebella after permanent right middle cerebral artery occlusion in order to assess the crossed cerebellar diaschisis.
Nitrite values in ipsilateral cortex were significantly higher than those in contralateral cortex at 10 (P < 0.001) and 60 (P < 0.05) min of ischemia but no significant changes were observed in both cerebellum compared to the 0 min values. In both cerebral cortex and cerebellum cGMP levels at 10 and 60 min were significantly increased (P < 0.001). This increase was marked in ipsilateral cortex and contralateral cerebellum when compared with opposite cortex and cerebellum (P < 0.001). MDA values in ipsilateral cortex were significantly higher than those in contralateral cortex at 60 min of ischemia (P < 0.05). Contralateral cerebellar MDA values were found significantly higher than those in ipsilateral cerebellum at 0 (P<0.001) and 60 (P < 0.05) min of ischemia. In ipsilateral cortex, conjugated diene values at 0, 10, 60 min of ischemia were higher than those in contralateral cortex. On the other hand 0, 10, 60 min conjugated diene levels in contralateral cerebellum were significantly higher than those in ipsilateral cerebellum (P < 0.001).
These findings support the interruption of the corticopontocerebellar tract as the mechanism of the crossed cerebellar diaschisis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Functional impairment after brain injury (BI) has been attributed to the inhibition of regions that are related to the injured site. Therefore, noradrenaline (NA) is thought to play a critical role in recovery from motor injury. However, the mechanism of this recovery process has not been completely elucidated. Moreover, the locus coeruleus (LC) projects from the pons through the rat sensorimotor cortex, and injury axotomizes LC fibers, depressing NA function. This was tested by measuring lipid peroxidation (LP) in the pons after sensorimotor cortex injury. Depression of function in the pons would be expected to alter areas receiving pontine efferents. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (n=16), injured (n=10) and recovering (n=16), and they were evaluated using a beam-walking assay between 2 and 20 days after cortical injury. We performed measures of NA and LP in both sides of the pons and cerebellum. We found a decrease of NA in the pons and the cerebellum, and a concomitant increase in the motor deficit and LP in the pons of injured animals. Recovering rats had NA and LP levels that were very similar to those observed in control rats. These observations suggest that the mechanism of remote inhibition after BI involves lipid peroxidation, and that the NA decrease found in the cerebellum of injured animals is mediated by a noradrenergic depression in the pons, or in areas receiving NA projections from the pons.Neuroscience Letters 10/2008; 443(1):32-6. · 2.03 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The sensorimotor cortex and the cerebellum are interconnected by the corticopontocerebellar (CPC) pathway and by neuronal groups such as the serotonergic system. Our aims were to determine the levels of cerebellar serotonin (5-HT) and lipid peroxidation (LP) after cortical iron injection and to analyze the motor function produced by the injury. Rats were divided into the following three groups: control, injured and recovering. Motor function was evaluated using the beam-walking test as an assessment of overall locomotor function and the footprint test as an assessment of gait. We also determined the levels of 5-HT and LP two and twenty days post-lesion. We found an increase in cerebellar 5-HT and a concomitant increase in LP in the pons and cerebellum of injured rats, which correlated with their motor deficits. Recovering rats showed normal 5-HT and LP levels. The increase of 5-HT in injured rats could be a result of serotonergic axonal injury after cortical iron injection. The LP and motor deficits could be due to impairments in neuronal connectivity affecting the corticospinal and CPC tracts and dysmetric stride could be indicative of an ataxic gait that involves the cerebellum.Neurochemical Research 10/2010; 35(10):1538-45. · 2.13 Impact Factor