To identify the genes located downstream of the activated Ki-Ras signaling pathways in human colon cancer cells, a PCR-based cDNA subtraction library was constructed between HCT116 cells and HCT116-derived activated Ki-ras-disrupted cells (HKe3). One of the genes in HCT116 that was evidently up-regulated was epiregulin, a member of the epidermal growth factor family that is expressed in many kinds of human cancer cells. HKe3-stable transfectants expressing activated Ki-Ras regained over-expression of epiregulin. To further elucidate the biochemical structure and significance of epiregulin expression in tumorigenesis, HKe3-stable transfectants expressing epiregulin (e3-pSE cells) were established. Epiregulin existed as highly glycosylated membrane-bound forms, and TPA rapidly induced ectodomain shedding of epiregulin. Furthermore, the conditioned medium of e3-pSE cells showed more DNA synthesis for 32D cells expressing epidermal growth factor receptor (DER) cells than that of HKe3. Although anchorage-independent growth in soft agar was not observed for e3-pSE cells, tumorigenicity in nude mice was observed evidently, and their growth rate was correlated with each amount of exogenous epiregulin expression. These results suggested that activated Ki-Ras will be one of the factors contributing to the overexpression of epiregulin in human colon cancer cells, and that epiregulin will play a critical role in human tumorigenesis in vivo.
"Of the EGF ligands, EREG is produced as a transmembrane precursor and exerts mitotic activity in various primary cell types, such as rat hepatocytes, and various types of human cancer cells, particularly epithelial tumor cells  . Interestingly , EREG is expressed at relatively low levels in most adult normal tissues, but is highly expressed in various human cancers, including colon, breast, prostate, and ovary cancers    . Many studies have demonstrated the possible involvement of EREG in tumorigenesis and the oncogenic effects of cancer-specific overexpression of EREG. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Growth factors are implicated in several processes essential for cancer progression. Specifically, epidermal growth factor (EGF) family members, including epiregulin (EREG), are important prognostic factors in many epithelial cancers, and treatments targeting these molecules have recently become available. Here, we constructed and expressed humanized anti-EREG antibodies by variable domain resurfacing based on the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the Fv fragment. However, the initial humanized antibody (HM0) had significantly decreased antigen-binding affinity. Molecular modeling results suggested that framework region (FR) residues latently important to antigen binding included residue 49 of the light chain variable region (VL). Back mutation of the VL49 residue (tyrosine to histidine) generated the humanized version HM1, which completely restored the binding affinity of its murine counterpart. Importantly, only one mutation in the framework may be necessary to recover the binding capability of a humanized antibody. Our data support that HM1 exerts potent antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Hence, this antibody may have potential for further development as a candidate therapeutic agent and research tool.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2013; 441(4). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.11.014 · 2.30 Impact Factor
"Human CRC HCT116 cells were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (Frederick, MD). Two-dimensional (2-D) culture (2 DC) of HCT116 cells, HKe3 cells and e3-MKRas#14 cells (HKe3-derived stable transfectants expressing oncogenic KRAS) was done as described previously [4,5,41]. The 3 DC was performed using Matrigel, a reconstituted basement membrane (Growth Factor Reduced Matrigel; BD bioscience), as described previously [5,42]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously established a three-dimensional (3-D) colonic crypt model using HKe3 cells which are human colorectal cancer (CRC) HCT116 cells with a disruption in oncogenic KRAS, and revealed the crucial roles of oncogenic KRAS both in inhibition of apoptosis and in disruption of cell polarity; however, the molecular mechanism of KRAS-induced these 3-D specific biological changes remains to be elucidated.
Among the genes that were upregulated by oncogenic KRAS in this model, we focused on the phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) of which expression levels were found to be higher in clinical tumor samples from CRC patients in comparison to those from healthy control in the public datasets of gene expression analysis. PDE4B2 was specifically overexpressed among other PDE4 isoforms, and re-expression of oncogenic KRAS in HKe3 cells resulted in PDE4B overexpression. Furthermore, the inhibition of PDE4 catalytic activity using rolipram reverted the disorganization of HCT116 cells into the normal physiologic state of the epithelial cell polarity by inducing the apical assembly of ZO-1 (a tight junction marker) and E-cadherin (an adherens junction marker) and by increasing the activity of caspase-3 (an apoptosis marker) in luminal cavities. Notably, rolipram reduced the AKT phosphorylation, which is known to be associated with the disruption of luminal cavity formation and CRC development. Similar results were also obtained using PDE4B2-shRNAs. In addition, increased expression of PDE4B mRNA was found to be correlated with relapsed CRC in a public datasets of gene expression analysis.
These results collectively suggested that PDE4B is upregulated by oncogenic KRAS, and also that the inhibition of PDE4 catalytic activity can induce both epithelial cell polarity and luminal apoptosis in CRC, thus highlighting the utility of our 3-D culture (3 DC) model for the KRAS-induced development of CRC in 3-D microenvironment. Indeed, using this model, we found that PDE4B is a promising candidate for a therapeutic target as well as prognostic molecular marker in CRC. Further elucidation of the signaling network of PDE4B2 in 3 DC would provide a better understanding of CRC in vivo.
Molecular Cancer 07/2012; 11:46. DOI:10.1186/1476-4598-11-46 · 4.26 Impact Factor
"One possible explanation is that neurotensin also might induce release of ligands that activate ErbB3 or ErbB4 receptors. The HCT116 cells have been found to release several ligands that activate the ErbB receptor family [62-64]. The lack of complete inhibition induced by GM6001 pretreatment could imply that EGFR transactivation could also be induced independently of ligand shedding by an intracellular calcium-mediated mechanism, possibly involving Pyk2 or Src [43,44]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurotensin has been found to promote colon carcinogenesis in rats and mice, and proliferation of human colon carcinoma cell lines, but the mechanisms involved are not clear. We have examined signalling pathways activated by neurotensin in colorectal and pancreatic carcinoma cells.
Colon carcinoma cell lines HCT116 and HT29 and pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line Panc-1 were cultured and stimulated with neurotensin or epidermal growth factor (EGF). DNA synthesis was determined by incorporation of radiolabelled thymidine into DNA. Levels and phosphorylation of proteins in signalling pathways were assessed by Western blotting.
Neurotensin stimulated the phosphorylation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt in all three cell lines, but apparently did so through different pathways. In Panc-1 cells, neurotensin-induced phosphorylation of ERK, but not Akt, was dependent on protein kinase C (PKC), whereas an inhibitor of the β-isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), TGX221, abolished neurotensin-induced Akt phosphorylation in these cells, and there was no evidence of EGF receptor (EGFR) transactivation. In HT29 cells, in contrast, the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib blocked neurotensin-stimulated phosphorylation of both ERK and Akt, indicating transactivation of EGFR, independently of PKC. In HCT116 cells, neurotensin induced both a PKC-dependent phosphorylation of ERK and a metalloproteinase-mediated transactivation of EGFR that was associated with a gefitinib-sensitive phosphorylation of the downstream adaptor protein Shc. The activation of Akt was also inhibited by gefitinib, but only partly, suggesting a mechanism in addition to EGFR transactivation. Inhibition of PKC blocked neurotensin-induced DNA synthesis in HCT116 cells.
While acting predominantly through PKC in Panc-1 cells and via EGFR transactivation in HT29 cells, neurotensin used both these pathways in HCT116 cells. In these cells, neurotensin-induced activation of ERK and stimulation of DNA synthesis was PKC-dependent, whereas activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway was mediated by stimulation of metalloproteinases and subsequent transactivation of the EGFR. Thus, the data show that the signalling mechanisms mediating the effects of neurotensin involve multiple pathways and are cell-dependent.
BMC Cancer 10/2011; 11(1):421. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-11-421 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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