Article

Cigar, pipe, and cigarette smoking as risk factors for periodontal disease and tooth loss

Department of Periodontology, Temple University School of Dentistry, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA.
Journal of Periodontology (Impact Factor: 2.57). 12/2000; 71(12):1874-81. DOI: 10.1902/jop.2000.71.12.1874
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Our purpose was to test the hypotheses that cigar and pipe smoking have significant associations with periodontal disease and cigar, pipe, and cigarette smoking is associated with tooth loss. We also investigated whether a history of smoking habits cessation may affect the risk of periodontal disease and tooth loss.
A group of 705 individuals (21 to 92 years-old) who were among volunteer participants in the ongoing Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging were examined clinically to assess their periodontal status and tooth loss. A structured interview was used to assess the participants' smoking behaviors with regard to cigarettes, cigar, and pipe smoking status. For a given tobacco product, current smokers were defined as individuals who at the time of examination continued to smoke daily. Former heavy smokers were defined as individuals who have smoked daily for 10 or more years and who had quit smoking. Non-smokers included individuals with a previous history of smoking for less than 10 years or no history of smoking.
Cigarette and cigar/pipe smokers had a higher prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis and higher prevalence and extent of attachment loss and gingival recession than non-smokers, suggesting poorer periodontal health in smokers. In addition, smokers had less gingival bleeding and higher number of missing teeth than non-smokers. Current cigarette smokers had the highest prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis (25.7%) compared to former cigarette smokers (20.2%), and non-smokers (13.1%). The estimated prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis in current or former cigar/pipe smokers was 17.6%. A similar pattern was seen for other periodontal measurements including the percentages of teeth with > or = 5 mm attachment loss and probing depth, > or = 3 mm gingival recession, and dental calculus. Current, former, and non- cigarette smokers had 5.1, 3.9, and 2.8 missing teeth, respectively. Cigar/pipe smokers had on average 4 missing teeth. Multiple regression analysis also showed that current tobacco smokers may have increased risks of having moderate and severe periodontitis than former smokers. However, smoking behaviors explained only small percentages (<5%) of the variances in the multivariate models.
The results suggest that cigar and pipe smoking may have similar adverse effects on periodontal health and tooth loss as cigarette smoking. Smoking cessation efforts should be considered as a means of improving periodontal health and reducing tooth loss in heavy smokers of cigarettes, cigars, and pipes with periodontal disease.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Charles F Streckfus, Aug 11, 2015
3 Followers
 · 
163 Views
  • Source
    • "The study consisted of the male and female subjects of varying racial backgrounds ranging in age from 18 to 100 years that were already enrolled as participants of the BLSA [9]. The criteria for entering the BLSA study are discussed in depth in prior publications [9] [11]. All participants for this assessment had to have at least 10 teeth per maxillary and mandibular arches and be capable of signing the IRB consent form. "
    Open Journal of Stomatology 05/2013; 3:133-141.
  • Source
    • "The recorded differences within and between treatments were not significant. A reason why the statistically significant reduction in PD is not reflected in attachment gain might be that the reduction observed was mainly due to gingival recession (GR), which has been reported to be greater in smokers (Albandar et al. 2000). One can also suspect that the low standard of oral hygiene among participants in this study has had a detrimental effect on attachment gain. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this randomized, controlled clinical trial was to compare the clinical and microbiological effects of pocket debridement using erbium-doped: yttrium, aluminium and garnet (Er:YAG) laser with conventional debridement in maintenance patients. Fifteen patients, all smokers, having at least four teeth with residual probing depth (PD) ≥ 5 mm were recruited. Two pockets in two jaw quadrants were randomly assigned to subgingival debridement using an Er:YAG laser (test) or ultrasonic scaler/curette (control) at 3-month intervals. Relative attachment level (RAL), PD, bleeding on probing and dental plaque were recorded at baseline and at 6 and 12 months. Microbiological subgingival samples were taken at the same time points and analysed using a checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. A significant decrease in PD took place in both treatments from baseline to 12 months (p < 0.01). In the control, the mean initial PD decreased from 5.4 to 4.0 mm at 12 months. For the test, a similar decrease occurred. No significant between-treatment differences were shown at any time point. The mean RAL showed no overall significant inter- or intra-treatment differences (p > 0.05). No significant between-treatment differences were observed in subgingival microbiological composition or total pathogens. The results failed to support that an Er:YAG laser may be superior to conventional debridement in the treatment of smokers with recurring chronic inflammation. This appears to be the first time that repeated Er-YAG laser instrumentation has been compared with mechanical instrumentation of periodontal sites with recurring chronic inflammation over a clinically relevant time period.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 05/2012; 39(8):745-52. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-051X.2012.01912.x · 3.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Identified risk factors for the initiation of periodontitis are subgingival calculus and subgingival detection of A. actinomycetemcomitans [4]. Risk indicators for progression of the disease include smoking [5], age, stress and psychological factors [6] and existing attachment loss [7]. Other putative risk factors involve gender, education, socio-economic status [8], nutritional factors [9] and body mass index [6] [10]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and chronic and aggressive periodontitis are chronic inflammatory disorders characterized by deregulation of the host inflammatory response. Increased secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators results in soft and hard tissue destruction of the synovium and periodontium respectively. Both diseases share risk factors and have pathological pathways in common, resulting in loss of function and disability as a final clinical outcome. This article discusses possible interactions, particularly related to the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, which could explain the observed association between these two prevalent diseases.
    Anaerobe 04/2011; 17(4):196-200. DOI:10.1016/j.anaerobe.2011.03.019 · 2.36 Impact Factor
Show more