Article

Initiation of Biofilm Formation byPseudomonas aeruginosa 57RP Correlates with Emergence of Hyperpiliated and Highly Adherent Phenotypic Variants Deficient in Swimming, Swarming, and Twitching Motilities

INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier-Microbiologie et Biotechnologie, Laval, Québec, Canada H7V 1B7.
Journal of Bacteriology (Impact Factor: 2.69). 03/2001; 183(4):1195-204. DOI: 10.1128/JB.183.4.1195-1204.2001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous environmental bacterium capable of forming biofilms on surfaces as a survival strategy. It exhibits a large variety of competition/virulence factors, such as three types of motilities: flagellum-mediated swimming, flagellum-mediated swarming, and type IV pilus-mediated twitching. A strategy frequently used by bacteria to survive changing environmental conditions is to create a phenotypically heterogeneous population by a mechanism called phase variation. In this report, we describe the characterization of phenotypic variants forming small, rough colonies that spontaneously emerged when P. aeruginosa 57RP was cultivated as a biofilm or in static liquid cultures. These small-colony (S) variants produced abundant type IV fimbriae, displayed defective swimming, swarming, and twitching motilities, and were impaired in chemotaxis. They also autoaggregated in liquid cultures and rapidly initiated the formation of strongly adherent biofilms. In contrast, the large-colony variant (parent form) was poorly adherent, homogeneously dispersed in liquid cultures, and produced scant polar fimbriae. Further analysis of the S variants demonstrated differences in a variety of other phenotypic traits, including increased production of pyocyanin and pyoverdine and reduced elastase activity. Under appropriate growth conditions, cells of each phenotype switched to the other phenotype at a fairly high frequency. We conclude that these S variants resulted from phase variation and were selectively enriched when P. aeruginosa 57RP was grown as a biofilm or in static liquid cultures. We propose that phase variation ensures the prior presence of phenotypic forms well adapted to initiate the formation of a biofilm as soon as environmental conditions are favorable.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Eric Déziel, Jul 05, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
60 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Biofilm formation on reverse osmosis (RO) systems represents a drawback in the application of this technology by different industries, including oil refineries. In RO systems the feed water maybe a source of microbial contamination and thus contributes for the formation of biofilm and consequent biofouling. In this study the planktonic culturable bacterial community was characterized from a feed water of a RO system and their capacities were evaluated to form biofilm in vitro. Bacterial motility and biofilm control were also analysed using phages. As results, diverse Protobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were identified. Alphaproteobacteria was the predominant group and Brevundimonas, Pseudomonas and Mycobacterium the most abundant genera. Among the 30 isolates, 11 showed at least one type of motility and 11 were classified as good biofilm formers. Additionally, the influence of non-specific bacteriophage in the bacterial biofilms formed in vitro was investigated by action of phages enzymes or phage infection. The vB_AspP-UFV1 (Podoviridae) interfered in biofilm formation of most tested bacteria and may represent a good alternative in biofilm control. These findings provide important information about the bacterial community from the feed water of a RO system that may be used for the development of strategies for biofilm prevention and control in such systems.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 07/2014; 30(10). DOI:10.1007/s11274-014-1693-1
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The molecular-typing strategy, ERIC-PCR was used in an attempt to determine the genomic relationship of 28 P. aeruginosa strains isolated from faeces of healthy bovine, bovine mastitis and from faeces of hospital patients as well as from environment. ERIC-PCR fingerprinting revealed large molecular differentiation within this group of isolates. Twenty two out of 28 strains tested generated unique patterns of DNA bands and only three genotypes consisted of two isolates each were identified. We also tested the P. aeruginosa isolates for their ability to form a biofilm on abiotic surfaces including polyvinylchloride and polystyrene. Different biofilm-forming abilities were demonstrated among strains; however, most of them (64.3%) showed moderate-biofilm forming ability. The strains with increased swimming and twitching motility displayed elevated biofilm formation. However, a negative correlation was found between slime and initial biofilm production. On the basis of the results obtained, we suggest that there are no major differences in phenotypic properties between P. aeruginosa strains isolated from different sources.
    Polish journal of veterinary sciences 01/2014; 17(2):321-9. DOI:10.2478/pjvs-2014-0044
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Colony morphology may be an indicator of phenotypic variation, this being an important adaptive process adopted by bacteria to overcome environmental stressors. Furthermore, alterations in colony traits may reflect increased virulence and antimicrobial resistance. Despite the potential relevance of using colony morphological traits, the influence of experimental conditions on colony morphogenesis has been scarcely studied in detail. This study aims to clear and systematically at demonstrating the impact of some variables, such as colony growth time, plate colony density, culture medium, planktonic or biofilm mode of growth and strains genetic background, on bacterial colony morphology features using two P. aeruginosa strains. Results, based on 5-replicate experiments, demonstrated that all variables influenced colony morphogenesis and 18 different morphotypes were identified, showing different sizes, forms, colours, textures and margins. Colony growth time and composition of the medium were the variables that caused the highest impact on colony differentiation both derived from planktonic and biofilm cultures. Colony morphology characterization before 45h of incubation was considered inadequate and TSA, a non-selective medium, provided more colony diversity in contrast to P. aeruginosa selective media. In conclusion, data obtained emphasized the need to perform comparisons between colony morphologies in equivalent experimental conditions to avoid misinterpretation of microbial diagnostics and biomedical studies. Since colony morphotyping showed to be a reliable method to evaluate phenotypic switching and also to infer about bacterial diversity in biofilms, these unambiguous comparisons between morphotypes may offer a quite valuable input to clinical diagnosis, aiding the decision-making towards the selection of the most suitable antibiotic and supportive treatments.
    Journal of microbiological methods 10/2013; 95(3). DOI:10.1016/j.mimet.2013.09.020