Expression of the Th1 chemokine IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 in the airway alters mucosal allergic sensitization in mice.
ABSTRACT Although the preliminary characterization of chemokines and their receptors has been prolific, comparatively little is known about the role of chemokines in the evolution of immune responses. We speculate that the preferential recruitment of a particular immune cell population has implications for the short- and long-term features of an adaptive response. To test this hypothesis, we employed adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to express the Th1-affiliated, CXC chemokine IFN-gamma-inducible protein (IP) 10 in the airways of mice undergoing a mucosal sensitization regimen known to result in a Th2-polarized allergic response. This resulted in a approximately 60-75% inhibition of eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL); these inflammatory changes were accompanied by enhanced IFN-gamma, ablated IL-4, and, peculiarly, unaltered IL-5 and eotaxin levels in the BAL. The effect of IP-10 expression was shown to be dependent on IFN-gamma, as there was no statistically significant reduction in BAL eosinophilia in IFN-gamma knockout mice subjected to the IP-10 intervention. Flow cytometric analysis of mononuclear cells in the lung revealed a approximately 60% reduction in the fraction of CD4(+) cells expressing T1/ST2, a putative Th2 marker, and a parallel increase in the proportion expressing intracellular IFN-gamma following IP-10 treatment. The effect of IP-10 expression at the time of initial Ag encounter is persistent, as mice rechallenged with OVA following the resolution of acute inflammation exhibited reduced eosinophilia and IL-4 in the BAL. Collectively, these data illustrate that local expression of the chemokine IP-10 can introduce Th1 phenomena to a Th2-predisposed context and subvert the development of a Th2 response.
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ABSTRACT: Liver fibrosis is the final common pathway of chronic liver diseases irrespective of etiology. However, etiology deeply impacts progression and characteristics of liver fibrogenesis. IL-13 is the dominant pro-fibrotic cytokine in Schistosomiasis associated liver fibrogenesis. In vitro, IL-13 directly induces expression of fibrosis-associated genes, e.g., collagens or connective tissue growth factor, in hepatic stellate cells. Recently, potential effects of IL-13 in non-Schistosomiasis associated liver fibrosis have been uncovered. This review summarizes the potential roles of IL-13 in chronic liver disease of different etiologies, and the downstream events mediating IL-13 signaling in liver fibrogenesis.Frontiers in immunology. 01/2012; 3:116.
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ABSTRACT: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways and there are no preventions or cures. Inflammatory cells through the secretion of cytokines and pro-inflammatory molecules are thought to play a critical role in pathogenesis. Type 2 CD4(+) lymphocytes (Th2 cells) and their cytokines predominate in mild to moderate allergic asthma, whereas severe steroid-resistant asthma has more of a mixed Th2/Th1 phenotype with a Th17 component. Other immune cells, particularly neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells, as well structural cells such as epithelial and airway smooth muscle cells also produce disease-associated cytokines in asthma. Increased levels of these immune cells and cytokines have been identified in clinical samples and their potential role in disease demonstrated in studies using mouse models of asthma. Clinical trials with inhibitors of cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, -5 and tumour necrosis factor-α have had success in some studies but not others. This may reflect the design of the clinical trials, including treatments regimes and the patient population included in these studies. IL-13, -9 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor are currently being evaluated in clinical trials or preclinically and the outcome of these studies is eagerly awaited. Roles for IL-25, -33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, interferon-γ, IL-17 and -27 in the regulation of asthma are just emerging, identifying new ways to treat inflammation. Careful interpretation of results from mouse studies will inform the development and application of therapeutic approaches for asthma. The most effective approaches may be combination therapies that suppress multiple cytokines and a range of redundant and disconnected pathways that separately contribute to asthma pathogenesis. Astute application of these approaches may eventually lead to the development of effective asthma therapeutics. Here we review the current state of knowledge in the field.British Journal of Pharmacology 01/2011; 163(1):81-95. · 4.41 Impact Factor
Article: Divergent expression patterns of IL-4 and IL-13 define unique functions in allergic immunity.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-13 are critical for responses to parasitic helminthes. We used genetically engineered reporter mice to assess the temporal and spatial production of these cytokines in vivo. In lymph nodes, IL-4, but not IL-13, was made by follicular helper T cells (T(FH) cells). In contrast, tissue type 2 helper T cells (T(H)2 cells) produced both cytokines. There was also divergent production of IL-4 and IL-13 among cells of the innate immune system, whereby basophils produced IL-4, whereas innate helper type 2 cells (Ih2 cells) produced IL-13. IL-13 production by T(H)2 and Ih2 cells was dependent on the transcription factor GATA-3, which was present in large amounts in these cells, and in contrast to the small amount of GATA-3 in T(FH) cells and basophils. The distinct localization and cellular expression of IL-4 and IL-13 explains their unique roles during allergic immunity.Nature Immunology 12/2011; 13(1):58-66. · 26.01 Impact Factor