Monoclonal antibody 11-fibrau: a useful marker to characterize chondrocyte differentiation stage.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of discriminating between differentiated and dedifferentiated chondrocytes by using the Mab 11-fibrau. Mab 11-fibrau did not bind to differentiated chondrocytes in cartilage of human knee joint, auricle, or nasal septum. During monolayer culture, when cells dedifferentiate, the number of 11-fibrau positive cells gradually increased and reached up to 100% after 4 passages. When differentiated chondrocytes were cultured in alginate, most (90--95%) of the cells remained 11-fibrau negative, in accordance with previous studies demonstrating that differentiated chondrocytes cultured in alginate keep their phenotype. Dedifferentiated (11-fibrau positive) cells were subjected to different redifferentiation regimes. As a well-known fact, cultures in alginate in medium where FCS was replaced by IGF1 and TGF beta 2 results in increased collagen type II formation, indicative for redifferentiation. However, the cells remained 11-fibrau positive, suggesting they are not (yet) fully redifferentiated. On the other hand, when dedifferentiated cells (after 4 passages in monolayer culture) were seeded in a biomaterial and implanted subcutaneously in a nude mouse, the newly formed cartilage matrix contained collagen type II and the 11-fibrau staining on the cells had disappeared. Our results indicate that 11-fibrau may be a reliable and sensitive marker of chondrocyte phenotype.
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ABSTRACT: A host-derived hydrogel has been designed and validated as an entirely autologous, injectable delivery system for cells with potential for cell-based therapies and tissue engineering applications. Each individual has components in their blood from which can be formed a mechanically stable hydrogel having the capacity to maintain cellular phenotype and support cellular proliferation of multiple cell types through several culture passages ex vivo. The hydrogel can be triggered to gel at the time of implantation into the patient through an injection system that facilitates a liquid injection of components of the donor plasma and cells into the site of interest. This results in stable ectopic tissue formation at the site of implantation. Our studies have demonstrated excellent integration of the neotissue with host tissues with maintenance of the phenotype of implanted cells whilst observing minimal host innate immune cell recruitment. These findings could provide the fundamental basis for new hydrogel-based biomaterial therapies, overcoming the histocompatibility factors associated with implantable biomaterials whilst providing a stable three dimensional medium for cellular growth both in vivo and ex vivo.Biomaterials 01/2009; · 8.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Many studies in the field of cell-based cartilage repair have focused on identifying markers associated with the differentiation status of human articular chondrocytes (HAC) that could predict their chondrogenic potency. A previous study from our group showed a correlation between the expression of S100 protein in HAC and their chondrogenic potential. The aims of the current study were to clarify which S100 proteins are associated with HAC differentiation status and to provide an S100-based assay for measuring HAC chondrogenic potential. The expression patterns of S100A1 and S100B were investigated in cartilage and in HAC cultured under conditions promoting dedifferentiation (monolayer culture) or redifferentiation (pellet culture or BMP4 treatment in monolayer culture), using characterized antibodies specifically recognizing S100A1 and S100B, by immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, Western blot, and gene expression analysis. S100A1 and S100B were expressed homogeneously in all cartilage zones, and decreased during dedifferentiation. S100A1, but not S100B, was re-expressed in pellets and co-localized with collagen II. Gene expression analysis revealed concomitant modulation of S100A1, S100B, collagen type II, and aggrecan: down-regulation during monolayer culture and up-regulation upon BMP4 treatment. These results strongly support an association of S100A1, and to a lesser extent S100B, with the HAC differentiated phenotype. To facilitate their potential application, we established an S100A1/B-based flow cytometry assay for accurate assessment of HAC differentiation status. We propose S100A1 and S100B expression as a marker to develop potency assays for cartilage regeneration cell therapies, and as a redifferentiation readout in monolayer cultures aiming to investigate stimuli for chondrogenic induction. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Cellular Physiology 01/2014; · 3.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising cell type for the repair of damaged cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA). However, OA synovial fluid and factors secreted by synovium impede chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs, and the mechanism responsible for this effect remains unclear. In this study, we sought to investigate whether M1 and M2 synovial macrophages can contribute to the inhibition of MSC chondrogenesis. Design The constitution of synovial macrophage subsets was analysed by immunohistochemical staining of human OA synovium sections for CD86 (M1 marker) and CD206 (M2 marker). To assess the effect of synovial macrophages on chondrogenesis, collagen type II (COL2) and aggrecan (ACAN) gene expression were compared between MSCs undergoing chondrogenic differentiation in medium conditioned (CM) by human OA synovial explants, human synovial macrophages and fibroblasts, or peripheral blood derived primary human monocytes differentiated towards an M1 or M2 phenotype. Results OA synovium contained both M1 and M2 macrophages. Medium conditioned by synovial macrophages (CD45 + plastic adherent cells) down-regulated chondrogenic gene expression by MSCs. Additionally, CM of M1 polarised monocytes significantly decreased COL2 and ACAN gene expression by MSCs; this effect was not observed for treatment with CM of M2 polarised monocytes. Conclusion MSC chondrogenesis is inhibited by OA synovium CM through factors secreted by synovial macrophages and our findings suggest that M1 polarised subsets are potential mediators of this anti-chondrogenic effect. Modulation of macrophage phenotype may serve as a beneficial strategy to maximise the potential of MSCs for efficient cartilage repair.Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 08/2014; · 4.26 Impact Factor