Estradiol down regulates expression of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor type-1 in breast cancer cell lines.
ABSTRACT Three breast carcinoma cell lines were tested for 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) mediated regulation of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor type-1 (VPAC(1)) expression. In all three, E(2) was found to down-regulate the mRNA level. We studied T47D cells in more details and found a 25 and 70% decrease in the VPAC(1) mRNA level upon 7 and 48 h of E(2) treatment, respectively. The number of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) binding sites was reduced 66% upon treatment with E(2) for 72 h. After cycloheximide pretreatment, the E(2) mediated mRNA reduction was attenuated from 50% to 25% after 24 h suggesting the effect to be at least partly independent of protein synthesis. Experiments with the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D showed that E(2) did not influence the VPAC(1) mRNA half-life while nuclear run-on experiments indicated that E(2) decreased the VPAC(1) transcription rate. Two antiestrogens: ICI 182780 (ICI) and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen (4-OHT) mediated a concentration dependent inhibition of E(2)'s effect on the mRNA level. Transient transfection with reporter-gene constructs containing various portions of the VPAC(1) 5'-flanking sequence revealed the most proximal 100 bp to be essential for the basal transcriptional activity. However, E(2) did not influence the expression of the reporter gene using up to 3250 bp of the VPAC(1) 5'-flariking region.
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ABSTRACT: Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and its receptors (VPACs) are involved in proliferation, survival, and differentiation in human breast cancer cells. Its mechanism of action is traditionally thought to be through specific plasma membrane receptors. There is compelling evidence for a novel intracrine mode of genomic regulation by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that implies both endocytosis and nuclear translocation of peripheral GPCR and/or the activation of nuclear-located GPCRs by endogenously-produced, non-secreted ligands. Regarding to VPAC receptors, which are GPCRs, there is only a report suggesting them as a dynamic system for signaling from plasma membrane and nuclear membrane complex. In this study, we show that VPAC(1) receptor is localized in cell nuclear fraction whereas VPAC(2) receptor presents an extranuclear localization and its protein expression is lower than that of VPAC(1) receptor in human breast tissue samples. Both receptors as well as VIP are overexpressed in breast cancer as compared to non-tumor tissue. Moreover, we report the markedly nuclear localization of VPAC(1) receptors in estrogen-dependent (T47D) and independent (MDA-MB-468) human breast cancer cell lines. VPAC(1) receptors are functional in plasma membrane and nucleus as shown by VIP stimulation of cAMP production in both cell lines. In addition, VIP increases its own intracellular and extracellular levels, and could be involved in the regulation of VPAC(1)-receptor traffic from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. These results support new concepts on function and regulation of nuclear GPCRs which could have an impact on development of new therapeutic drugs.Peptides 11/2010; 31(11):2035-45. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The role of steroid hormones in regulating vaginal smooth muscle contractility was investigated. Rabbits were kept intact or ovariectomized. After 2 weeks, animals were continuously infused with vehicle or supraphysiological levels of testosterone (100 microg/day), or estradiol (200 microg/day), for an additional 2 weeks. The distal vaginal tissue was used to assess contractility in organ baths and changes in tissue structure were assessed by histology. Ovariectomized animals infused with vehicle exhibited significant atrophy of the muscularis and decreased epithelial height, resulting in thinning of the vaginal wall. Estradiol infusion increased epithelial height, comparable to that of intact animals, but only partially restored the muscularis layer. In contrast, testosterone infusion completely restored the muscularis layer, but only partially restored the epithelial height. In vaginal tissue strips contracted with norepinephrine and treated with bretylium, electrical field stimulation (EFS) caused frequency-dependent relaxation that was slightly attenuated with vehicle, significantly inhibited with estradiol and significantly enhanced with testosterone. VIP-induced relaxation was slightly attenuated in tissues from vehicle and estradiol-infused groups, but was enhanced in tissues from testosterone-infused animals. Contraction elicited by EFS or exogenous norepinephrine was not significantly altered with ovariectomy or steroid hormone infusion when data were normalized to potassium contraction. However, the tissue from testosterone-infused animals developed significantly greater contractile force to norepinephrine. These observations suggest that steroid hormones may be important regulators of vaginal tissue structure and contractility.International Journal of Impotence Research 03/2004; 16(1):43-50. · 1.51 Impact Factor