Estradiol down regulates expression of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor type-1 in breast cancer cell lines.
ABSTRACT Three breast carcinoma cell lines were tested for 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) mediated regulation of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor type-1 (VPAC(1)) expression. In all three, E(2) was found to down-regulate the mRNA level. We studied T47D cells in more details and found a 25 and 70% decrease in the VPAC(1) mRNA level upon 7 and 48 h of E(2) treatment, respectively. The number of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) binding sites was reduced 66% upon treatment with E(2) for 72 h. After cycloheximide pretreatment, the E(2) mediated mRNA reduction was attenuated from 50% to 25% after 24 h suggesting the effect to be at least partly independent of protein synthesis. Experiments with the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D showed that E(2) did not influence the VPAC(1) mRNA half-life while nuclear run-on experiments indicated that E(2) decreased the VPAC(1) transcription rate. Two antiestrogens: ICI 182780 (ICI) and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen (4-OHT) mediated a concentration dependent inhibition of E(2)'s effect on the mRNA level. Transient transfection with reporter-gene constructs containing various portions of the VPAC(1) 5'-flanking sequence revealed the most proximal 100 bp to be essential for the basal transcriptional activity. However, E(2) did not influence the expression of the reporter gene using up to 3250 bp of the VPAC(1) 5'-flariking region.
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ABSTRACT: Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and its receptors (VPACs) are involved in proliferation, survival, and differentiation in human breast cancer cells. Its mechanism of action is traditionally thought to be through specific plasma membrane receptors. There is compelling evidence for a novel intracrine mode of genomic regulation by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that implies both endocytosis and nuclear translocation of peripheral GPCR and/or the activation of nuclear-located GPCRs by endogenously-produced, non-secreted ligands. Regarding to VPAC receptors, which are GPCRs, there is only a report suggesting them as a dynamic system for signaling from plasma membrane and nuclear membrane complex. In this study, we show that VPAC(1) receptor is localized in cell nuclear fraction whereas VPAC(2) receptor presents an extranuclear localization and its protein expression is lower than that of VPAC(1) receptor in human breast tissue samples. Both receptors as well as VIP are overexpressed in breast cancer as compared to non-tumor tissue. Moreover, we report the markedly nuclear localization of VPAC(1) receptors in estrogen-dependent (T47D) and independent (MDA-MB-468) human breast cancer cell lines. VPAC(1) receptors are functional in plasma membrane and nucleus as shown by VIP stimulation of cAMP production in both cell lines. In addition, VIP increases its own intracellular and extracellular levels, and could be involved in the regulation of VPAC(1)-receptor traffic from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. These results support new concepts on function and regulation of nuclear GPCRs which could have an impact on development of new therapeutic drugs.Peptides 11/2010; 31(11):2035-45. DOI:10.1016/j.peptides.2010.07.024 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vasoactive intestinal peptide and its G-protein-coupled receptors, VPAC-1 and VPAC-2, are highly expressed in the immune system and modulate diverse T cell functions. The human VPAC-1 5'-flanking region (1.4 kb) contains four high affinity Ikaros (IK) consensus sequences. Ikaros native protein from T cell nuclear extracts and IK-1 and IK-2 recombinant proteins recognized an IK high affinity binding motif in the VPAC-1 promoter in electrophoretic mobility shift assays by a sequence-specific mechanism, and anti-IK antibodies supershifted this complex. Stable NIH-3T3 clones overexpressing IK-1 or IK-2 isoforms were generated to investigate Ikaros regulation of endogenous VPAC-1 expression as assessed by quantifying VPAC-1 mRNA and protein. By traditional and fluorometric-based kinetic reverse transcription-PCR and (125)I-labeled vasoactive intestinal peptide binding, both IK-1 and IK-2 suppressed endogenous VPAC-1 expression in NIH-3T3 clones by a range of 50-93%. When a series of nested deletions of the VPAC-1 luciferase reporter construct were transiently transfected into IK-2 clones there was up to a 41% decrease in transcriptional activity compared with vector control. Two major IK-2 binding domains also were identified at -1076 to -623 bp and at -222 to -35 bp, respectively. As both Ikaros and its novel target VPAC-1 are highly expressed in T cells, this system may be a dominant determinant of the VPAC-1 expression in immune responses.Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2002; 277(16):13488-93. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M107922200 · 4.60 Impact Factor