Surface expression of a glycolytic enzyme, alpha-enolase, recognized by autoantibodies in connective tissue disorders.
ABSTRACT In systemic autoimmune diseases, autoantibodies specific for alpha-enolase are detected more frequently in patients with active renal involvement. To analyze the properties of anti-alpha-enolase antibodies and the distribution of the enzyme in the cell, mouse monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were obtained from mice immunized with a glutathione-S-transferase-alpha-enolase fusion protein. Anti-alpha-enolase antibodies were purified from patient sera on enolase from human kidney. Using these antibodies, the distribution of alpha-enolase in the cell was analyzed in subcellular fractions and in the cell membrane by flow cytometry and immunoprecipitation. Plasminogen binding was studied by an immunoenzymatic assay. We observed that alpha-enolase was present in the cytosol and membrane fractions obtained from kidney and U937 cells. By flow cytometry, mouse polyclonal anti-enolase antibodies, one monoclonal and 7/9 human anti-enolase antibodies bound the membrane of U937 cells. One monoclonal antibody and mouse polyclonal anti-enolase antibodies immunoprecipitated a 48-kDa molecule from surface-labeled U937 cells and this molecule was recognized by rabbit anti-enolase antibodies. Both immunization-induced antibodies and 7/9 autoantibodies from patient sera inhibited the binding of plasminogen to alpha-enolase. The results show that alpha-enolase, an autoantigen in connective tissue diseases, is a cytoplasmic enzyme which is also expressed on the cell membrane, with which it is strongly associated. Anti-alpha-enolase autoantibodies isolated from patient sera recognize the membrane-associated form of the enzyme and/or interfere with its receptor function, thus inhibiting the binding of plasminogen. Autoantibodies specific for alpha-enolase could play a pathogenic role, either by a cytopathic effect or by interfering with membrane fibrinolytic activity.
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ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma bovis is the causative agent of Mycoplasma bovis-associated disease (MbAD). Although the mechanisms underlying M. bovis adherence to host cells is not clear, recent studies have shown that the cell surface protein α-enolase facilitates bacterial invasion and dissemination in the infected host. In this study, we cloned, expressed and purified recombinant M. bovis α-enolase and induced polyclonal anti-α-enolase antibodies in rabbits. M. bovis α-enolase was detected in the cytoplasmic and membrane protein fractions by these antibodies. Triple immunofluorescence labeling combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) revealed that the plasminogen (Plg) enhanced the adherence of M. bovis to embryonic bovine lung (EBL) cells; the values obtained for adherence and inhibition are consistent with this finding. Interestingly, we found that trace amounts of trypsin acted as a more effective enhancer of cell adherence than Plg. Hence, our data indicate that surface-associated M. bovis α-enolase is an adhesion-related factor of M. bovis that contributes to adherence by binding Plg.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e38836. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Myc promoter-binding protein-1 (MBP-1) is a novel potential prognostic marker in invasive ductal breast carcinoma.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Alpha-enolase is a glycolytic enzyme that catalyses the formation of phosphoenolpyruvate in the cell cytoplasm. α-Enolase and the predominantly nuclear Myc promoter-binding protein-1 (MBP-1) originate from a single gene through the alternative use of translational starting sites. MBP-1 binds to the P2 c-myc promoter and competes with TATA-box binding protein (TBP) to suppress gene transcription. Although several studies have shown an antiproliferative effect of MBP-1 overexpression on several human cancer cells, to date detailed observations of α-enolase and MBP-1 relative expression in primary tumors versus normal tissues and their correlation with clinicopathological features have not been undertaken. We analyzed α-enolase and MBP-1 expression in normal breast epithelium and primary invasive ductal breast carcinoma (IDC) from 177 patients by Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses, using highly specific anti-α-enolase monoclonal antibodies. A significant increase in the expression of cytoplasmic α-enolase was observed in 98% of the tumors analysed, compared to normal tissues. Nuclear MBP-1 was found in almost all the normal tissues while its expression was retained in only 35% of the tumors. Statistically significant associations were observed among the nuclear expression of MBP-1 and ErbB2 status, Ki-67 expression, node status and tumor grade. Furthermore MBP-1 expression was associated with good survival of patients with IDC. MBP-1 functions in repressing c-myc gene expression and the results presented indicate that the loss of nuclear MBP-1 expression in a large number of IDC may be a critical step in the development and progression of breast cancer and a predictor of adverse outcome. Nuclear MBP-1 appears to be a novel and valuable histochemical marker with potential prognostic value in breast cancer.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(9):e12961. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most commonly reported arthropod-borne disease in the United States. B. burgdorferi is a highly invasive bacterium, yet lacks extracellular protease activity. In order to aid in its dissemination, B. burgdorferi binds plasminogen, a component of the hosts' fibrinolytic system. Plasminogen bound to the surface of B. burgdorferi can then be activated to the protease plasmin, facilitating the bacterium's penetration of endothelial cell layers and degradation of extracellular matrix components. Enolases are highly conserved proteins with no sorting sequences or lipoprotein anchor sites, yet many bacteria have enolases bound to their outer surfaces. B. burgdorferi enolase is both a cytoplasmic and membrane associated protein. Enolases from other pathogenic bacteria are known to bind plasminogen. We confirmed the surface localization of B. burgdorferi enolase by in situ protease degradation assay and immunoelectron microscopy. We then demonstrated that B. burgdorferi enolase binds plasminogen in a dose-dependent manner. Lysine residues were critical for binding of plasminogen to enolase, as the lysine analog εaminocaproic acid significantly inhibited binding. Ionic interactions did not play a significant role in plasminogen binding by enolase, as excess NaCl had no effects on the interaction. Plasminogen bound to recombinant enolase could be converted to active plasmin. We conclude that B. burgdorferi enolase is a moonlighting cytoplasmic protein which also associates with the bacterial outer surface and facilitates binding to host plasminogen.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(11):e27502. · 4.09 Impact Factor