Segregation analyses and a genome-wide linkage search confirm genetic heterogeneity and suggest oligogenic inheritance in some Milroy congenital primary lymphedema families.
ABSTRACT We previously described six families with Milroy congenital lymphedema, only one of which showed possible linkage to a candidate locus on chromosome 5 [Witte et al., 1998]. We have now performed a complex segregation analysis of these families, and performed linkage analyses with the other 387 markers used in our genome-wide search. Our results confirm that Milroy lymphedema is generally inherited as a dominant condition. However, this mode of inheritance, as elucidated from the segregation analyses, did not account for all observed familial correlations. The segregation analysis also suggested that shared environmental or additional genetic factors are important in explaining the observed familial aggregation. The finding of linkage to multiple locations in the largest family studied by multipoint parametric mapping (one of which was confirmed by sib-pair non-parametric mapping), suggests that Milroy congenital lymphedema may be oligogenic in this family.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction. Primary congenital lymphedema is a rare disorder associated with insufficient development of lymphatic vessels. Usually most patients present with lower extremity edema seen sonographically. Rarely primary congenital lymphedema may be associated with severe lymphatic dysfunction resulting in hydrops fetalis. Case. A 27-year-old primigravida with a family history of leg swelling throughout multiple generations was diagnosed early in the third trimester with hydrops fetalis. Delivery was undertaken at 32 weeks for nonreassuring fetal status and the infant expired at approximately 45 minutes of life. Primary congenital lymphedema was confirmed via molecular testing of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 gene. Discussion. The diagnosis of PCL is suspected prenatally when ultrasound findings coincide with a positive family history of chronic lower limb lymphedema. Isolated PCL is rarely associated with significant complications. Rarely, however, widespread lymphatic dysplasia may occur, possibly resulting in nonimmune hydrops fetalis.02/2013; 2013:186173. DOI:10.1155/2013/186173
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ABSTRACT: Recent advances in the exploration and manipulation of the human genome provided new insights into the intricate genetics and control of lymphangiogenesis. Implications for embryogenesis and development of the lymphatic system and its role in some familial and aneuploid syndromes are reviewed, along with their genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Increased understanding of growth and development of the lymphatic vessels may bring new therapeutic options for lymphatic angiodysplasias and control of the lymphatic spread of tumors.
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ABSTRACT: Milroy disease (MD) is an autosomal dominantly inherited primary lymphedema. In 1998, the gene locus for MD was mapped to 5q35.3 and variants in the VEGFR3 (FLT4) gene, encoding vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3), were identified as being responsible for the majority of MD cases. Several reports have since been published detailing pathogenic FLT4 mutations. To date, a total of 58 different variants in FLT4, 20 of which are unpublished, have been observed in 95 families with MD. A review of published mutations is presented in this update. Furthermore, the unpublished variants are presented including clinical data. Comparison of clinical features in patients and their families with the same mutations reveals incomplete penetrance and variable expression, making genotype-phenotype correlations difficult. Most mutations are missense, but a few deletions and one splicing variant have also been reported. Several animal models have confirmed the role of VEGFR3 in lymphangiogenesis and studies show mutant VEGFR3 receptors are not phosphorylated. Here, an MD patient with the same p.Ile1053Phe change as seen in the Chy mouse is presented for the first time. This finding confirms that this mouse lineage is an excellent model for MD. All the data reviewed here has been submitted to a database based on the Leiden Open (source) Variation Database (LOVD) and is accessible online at www.lovd.nl/flt4.Human Mutation 01/2013; 34(1). DOI:10.1002/humu.22223 · 5.05 Impact Factor