Prenatal exposure to anti-HIV drugs: Neurobehavioral effects of zidovudine (AZT) + lamivudine (3TC) treatment in mice
ABSTRACT The new antiretroviral treatments that combine the zidovudine (AZT) regimen with lamivudine (3TC) appear as a cost-effective alternative to the current AZT monotherapy to prevent mother-to-fetus transmission of the HIV-1 virus. Recent evidence in uninfected children raised concern about the long-term effects of perinatal exposure to AZT and 3TC, especially when used in combination. Animal studies indicated behavioral changes in offspring exposed perinatally to both AZT and 3TC, whereas no animal data are available on the effects of the perinatal exposure to the AZT + 3TC combination on neurodevelopment.
Pregnant CD-1 mice received p.o. AZT + 3TC (160 and 500 mg/kg, respectively) or vehicle solution (NaCl 0.9%) twice daily from gestational day 10 to delivery. Maternal reproductive endpoints such as pregnancy length, abortion, litter size, sex ratio, and offspring viability were assessed. Pups were scored for different somatic and behavioral endpoints, including sensorimotor development, homing performance on postnatal day (PND) 10, passive-avoidance testing (PND 22-23), locomotor activity (PND 23), and social interaction (PND 35).
While no effects were observed on maternal reproductive endpoints, treated pups showed a long-lasting reduction of body weight and a slightly delayed maturation of placing and grasping reflexes and pole grasping. No effects on passive-avoidance or locomotor activity were found. AZT + 3TC-treated mice showed selective alterations in the social interaction test; the treated female offspring also displayed a significant reduction of affiliative interactions.
The combination of AZT and 3TC (1) induced small, but more marked, effects on somatic and sensorimotor development than either of these drugs administered separately; and (2) affected juvenile social behavior.
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ABSTRACT: Pharmacological studies indicate that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) may be necessary for normal embryonic development in the mouse. For example, VIP antagonist treatment before embryonic day 11 resulted in developmental delays, growth restriction, modified adult brain chemistry and reduced social behavior. Here, developmental milestones, growth, and social behaviors of neonates of VIP-deficient mothers (VIP +/-) mated to VIP +/- males were compared with the offspring of wild type mothers (VIP +/+) mated to VIP +/+ and +/- males, to assess the contributions of both maternal and offspring VIP genotype. Regardless of their own genotype, all offsprings of VIP-deficient mothers exhibited developmental delays. No delays were seen in the offspring of wild type mothers, regardless of their own genotype. Body weights were significantly reduced in offspring of VIP-deficient mothers, with VIP null (-/-) the most affected. Regardless of genotype, all offspring of VIP-deficient mothers expressed reduced maternal affiliation compared with wild type offspring of wild type mothers; +/- offspring of wild type mothers did not differ in maternal affiliation from their wild type littermates. Play behavior was significantly reduced in all offsprings of VIP-deficient mothers. Maternal behavior did not differ between wild type and VIP-deficient mothers, and cross-fostering of litters did not change offspring development, indicating that offspring deficits were induced prenatally. This study illustrated that the VIP status of a pregnant mouse had a greater influence on the growth, development and behavior of her offspring than the VIP genotype of the offspring themselves. Deficiencies were apparent in +/+, +/- and -/- offspring born to VIP-deficient mothers; no deficiencies were apparent in +/- offspring born to normal mothers. These results underscore the significant contribution of the uterine environment to normal development and indicate a potential usefulness of the VIP knockout mouse in furthering the understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders with social behavior deficits such as autism.International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 09/2008; 26(5):423-34. DOI:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2008.03.002 · 2.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neonatal mice were treated daily on postnatal days (pnds) 1 through 4 or 11 through 14 with the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), at doses (1 or 3 mg/kg) that do not evoke systemic toxicity. Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was evaluated within 24 h from termination of treatments. Pups treated on pnds 1-4 underwent ultrasonic vocalization tests (pnds 5, 8, and 11) and a homing test (orientation to home nest material, pnd 10). Pups in both treatment schedules were then assessed for locomotor activity (pnd 25), novelty-seeking response (pnd 35), social interactions with an unfamiliar conspecific (pnd 45), and passive avoidance learning (pnd 60). AChE activity was reduced by 25% after CPF 1-4 but not after CPF 11-14 treatment. CPF selectively affected only the G(4) (tetramer) molecular isoform of AChE. Behavioral analysis showed that early CPF treatment failed to affect neonatal behaviors. Locomotor activity on pnd 25 was increased in 11-14 CPF-treated mice at both doses, and CPF-treated animals in both treatment schedules were more active when exposed to environmental novelty in the novelty-seeking test. All CPF-treated mice displayed more agonistic responses, and such effect was more marked in male mice exposed to the low CPF dose on pnds 11-14. Passive avoidance learning was not affected by CPF. These data indicate that developmental exposure to CPF induces long-term behavioral alterations in the mouse species and support the involvement of neural systems in addition to the cholinergic system in the delayed behavioral toxicity of CPF.Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 10/2003; 191(3):189-201. DOI:10.1016/S0041-008X(03)00229-1 · 3.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A new Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is the aetiological agent of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Because of the critical role played by serological assays for SARS diagnosis, an in-house ELISA based on SARS-CoV recombinant antigens was developed. The SARS-CoV nucleocapsid protein (N), three N fragments (N1, N2, and N3) and the intraviral domain of the membrane protein (M2) were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as histidine-tagged proteins. Six reference sera from SARS patients were used to detect virus-specific IgG in an ELISA using each recombinant protein as coating antigen. High-titre positive reactions were detected in all SARS positive sera. The specificity of the assay appears to be high as no positive reaction was detected in the sera of 20 healthy subjects and 73 patients with non-SARS, low-tract respiratory infections. Specific hyper-immune sera to SARS-CoV and the recombinant proteins, N, N1, N2, N3, and M2 were also generated in mice and rabbits. The specificity of these sera was confirmed by an immunocytochemical assay on biochips of SARS-CoV infected and uninfected cells.Journal of Medical Virology 06/2005; 76(2):137-42. DOI:10.1002/jmv.20338 · 2.22 Impact Factor