Topical antibiotic prophylaxis for bacteremia after dental extractions.
ABSTRACT Current prophylaxis for endocarditis in patients undergoing dental procedures consists of oral administration of amoxicillin. There is concern that the risk of anaphylaxis from systemically administered antibiotics might approach the incidence of endocarditis. Emergence of resistance among bacteria is also favored by systemically administered antibiotics. The present study was designed to assess the efficacy of topical amoxicillin given prophylactically as a mouthwash in reducing the incidence of bacteremia after dental extraction.
Thirty-six outpatients in a dental clinic were randomized in a 3:2:2 ratio to experimental prophylaxis of topical amoxicillin (3 g per mouthwash rinse; 15 patients), standard prophylaxis of oral amoxicillin (3 g in a single dose; 11 patients), or no prophylaxis (10 patients), respectively. Patients were stratified by severity of periodontal disease and number of teeth extracted. Data were analyzed for differences in the incidence of bacteremia by means of the 2-tailed Fisher exact test.
Breakthrough bacteremia after dental extraction was observed in 60% (6 of 10 patients) who received topical amoxicillin and in 89% (8 of 9 patients) who received no prophylaxis (P =.30). By comparison, breakthrough bacteremia after dental extraction was observed in 10% (1 of 10 patients) who received standard prophylaxis with oral amoxicillin (60% vs 10%; P =.05).
Topical amoxicillin decreased the incidence of bacteremia in comparison with no prophylaxis, but statistical significance was not achieved (P =.30). Topical amoxicillin was significantly less effective than standard prophylaxis with oral amoxicillin in decreasing the incidence of bacteremia after dental extractions.
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ABSTRACT: Despite the controversy about the risk of individuals developing bacterial endocarditis of oral origin, numerous Expert Committees in different countries continue to publish prophylactic regimens for the prevention of bacterial endocarditis secondary to dental procedures. In this paper, we analyze the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in the prevention of bacteremia following dental manipulations and in the prevention of bacterial endocarditis (in both animal models and human studies). Antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines remain consensus-based, and there is scientific evidence of the efficacy of amoxicillin in the prevention of bacteremia following dental procedures, although the results reported do not confirm the efficacy of other recommended antibiotics. The majority of studies on experimental models of bacterial endocarditis have verified the efficacy of antibiotics administered after the induction of bacteremia, confirming the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in later stages in the development of bacterial endocarditis. There is no scientific evidence that prophylaxis with penicillin is effective in reducing bacterial endocarditis secondary to dental procedures in patients considered to be "at risk". It has been suggested that there is a high risk of severe allergic reactions secondary to prophylactically administered penicillins, but, in reality, very few cases have been reported in the literature. It has been demonstrated that antibiotic prophylaxis could contribute to the development of bacterial resistance, but only after the administration of several consecutive doses. Future research on bacterial endocarditis prophylactic protocols should involve the re-evaluation of the time and route of administration of antibiotic prophylaxis, and a search for alternative antimicrobials.Journal of Dental Research 01/2008; 86(12):1142-59. DOI:10.1177/154405910708601203 · 4.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ➤ The number of patients with end-stage osteoarthritis is increasing, and treatment with hip and knee arthroplasty is expected to increase over the next several decades.➤ Dental disease has long been anecdotally associated with increased periprosthetic joint infections, although case-control studies do not support this relationship.➤ While most recent guidelines for the prevention of endocarditis have favored treatment of fewer patients, the most recent recommendations for prevention of periprosthetic joint infection have increased the number of patients who would receive antibiotics before a dental procedure.➤ Antibiotics given before a dental procedure decrease the risk of bacteremia from the oral cavity, but this is of uncertain clinical importance.➤ The number of patients who would require antibiotics before dental procedures to prevent one periprosthetic joint infection greatly outnumbers the number of patients who would experience an adverse event associated with antibiotics given before a dental procedure.The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 01/2014; 96(2):162-8. DOI:10.2106/JBJS.L.01379 · 4.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence suggests the involvement of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), a periodontal pathogen, in cardiovascular diseases. Clinical specimens of aneurysmal tissue and dental plaque collected from patients infected with or without P. gingivalis were analyzed. The number of aneurysms in the distal aorta in the P. gingivalis-infected group was significantly higher than that in the non-infected group. Cellular accumulation of adipocytes in aneurysms was less frequently identified in the infected group. The expression of embryonic myosin heavy chain isoform, a phenotypic marker for proliferative smooth muscle cells, was higher in the P. gingivalis-infected group than the non-infected group. Clinical and histopathological features of aortic aneurysms associated with P. gingivalis infection are different from those present in non-infected patients. The major characteristic of P. gingivalis infection associated with aneurysms is smooth muscle cell proliferation in the distal aorta.Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 06/2010; 113(2):115-9. DOI:10.1254/jphs.09R22FM · 2.11 Impact Factor