Topical antibiotic prophylaxis for bacteremia after dental extractions.
ABSTRACT Current prophylaxis for endocarditis in patients undergoing dental procedures consists of oral administration of amoxicillin. There is concern that the risk of anaphylaxis from systemically administered antibiotics might approach the incidence of endocarditis. Emergence of resistance among bacteria is also favored by systemically administered antibiotics. The present study was designed to assess the efficacy of topical amoxicillin given prophylactically as a mouthwash in reducing the incidence of bacteremia after dental extraction.
Thirty-six outpatients in a dental clinic were randomized in a 3:2:2 ratio to experimental prophylaxis of topical amoxicillin (3 g per mouthwash rinse; 15 patients), standard prophylaxis of oral amoxicillin (3 g in a single dose; 11 patients), or no prophylaxis (10 patients), respectively. Patients were stratified by severity of periodontal disease and number of teeth extracted. Data were analyzed for differences in the incidence of bacteremia by means of the 2-tailed Fisher exact test.
Breakthrough bacteremia after dental extraction was observed in 60% (6 of 10 patients) who received topical amoxicillin and in 89% (8 of 9 patients) who received no prophylaxis (P =.30). By comparison, breakthrough bacteremia after dental extraction was observed in 10% (1 of 10 patients) who received standard prophylaxis with oral amoxicillin (60% vs 10%; P =.05).
Topical amoxicillin decreased the incidence of bacteremia in comparison with no prophylaxis, but statistical significance was not achieved (P =.30). Topical amoxicillin was significantly less effective than standard prophylaxis with oral amoxicillin in decreasing the incidence of bacteremia after dental extractions.
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ABSTRACT: Transient, usually asymptomatic bacteremia occurs in a wide variety of procedures and manipulations, particularly those associated with mucous membrane trauma. It may also occur with such daily functions as tooth brushing and bowel movements. These brief bacteremias are especially common in tooth extraction and other dental procedures. Although numerical risk is uncertain, these bacteremias can occasionally give rise to infective endocarditis in the susceptible patient. While no proof exists that antibiotics given prior to procedures causing bacteremia prevent endocarditis in humans, experimental evidence in rabbits supports their use. Therefore, in situations where bacteremia is highly predictable, it would seem wise to administer prophylactic antimicrobials. Procedures in the susceptible host where prophylactic antibiotics seem prudent include dental manipulations and urinary tract instrumentation. Whether patients with acquired valvular or congenital heart disease who are to undergo abdominal surgical procedures should routinely receive prophylactic antibiotics is unclear. However, until the incidence of transient bacteremia associated with various abdominal procedures is further defined, endocarditis-prone patients should probably receive prophylaxis. Furthermore, patients with prosthetic valves who are subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, liver biopsy, or barium enema should also probably have antibiotic pretreatment. For dental procedures and for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in patients with prosthetic valves, a combination of penicillin and streptomycin or vancomycin alone is recommended. For urinary tract instrumentation in all patients and for sigmoidoscopy, liver biopsy, or barium enema in patients with prosthetic valves, prophylaxis should be with ampicillin and gentamicin or vancomycin and gentamicin.Medicine 02/1977; 56(1):61-77. · 4.23 Impact Factor
- Journal of the Canadian Dental Association 02/1973; 39(1):55-7.
- Archives of otolaryngology (Chicago, Ill.: 1960) 09/1969; 90(2):198-201.