SOD1 down-regulates NF-kappaB and c-Myc expression in mice after transient focal cerebral ischemia.
ABSTRACT Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in reperfusion injury after focal cerebral ischemia (FCI). Reactive oxygen species regulate activity of transcription factors like NF-kappaB. The authors investigated the role of ROS in NF-kappaB activity after FCI using transgenic mice that overexpressed human copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and that had reduced infarction volume after FCI. Superoxide dismutase transgenic and wild-type mice were subjected to 1 hour of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and subsequent reperfusion. Immunohistochemistry showed SOD1 overexpression attenuated ischemia-induced NF-kappaB p65 immunoreactivity. Colocalization of NF-kappaB and the neuronal marker, microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), showed that NF-kappaB was up-regulated in neurons after FCI. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that SODI overexpression reduced ischemia-induced NF-kappaB DNA binding activity. Supershift assays showed that DNA-protein complexes contained p65 and p50 subunits. Immunoreactivity of c-myc, an NF-kappaB downstream gene, was increased in the ischemic cortex and colocalized with NF-kappaB. Western blotting showed that SOD1 overexpression reduced NF-kappaB and c-Myc protein levels in the ischemic brain. Colocalization of c-Myc and TUNEL staining was observed 24 hours after FCI. The current findings provide the first evidence that SOD1 overexpression attenuates activation of NF-kappaB after transient FCI in mice and that preventing this early activation may block expression of downstream deleterious genes like c-myc, thereby reducing ischemic damage.
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ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress has long been implicated in the pathogenesis of both the acute and chronic neurotoxic effects of glutamate acting through ionotrophic receptors of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype. To evaluate the contribution of oxidative stress to the NMDA receptor-mediated apoptotic death of rat striatal neurons in vivo, the effects of a novel, orally administered free radical scavenger, OPC-14117, was studied following intrastriatal infusion of the NMDA receptor agonist quinolinic acid (QA). Receptor autoradiography and in situ hybridization histochemistry showed that pretreatment with OPC-14117 (600 mg/kg) reduced the QA (120 nmol)-induced loss of striatal D1 dopamine receptors by about 20% (p<0.01) and NMDA receptors by 15% (p<0.01) as well as 67 kDa glutamic acid decarboxylase mRNA (34%; p<0.01) and proenkephalin mRNA (36%; p<0.01). OPC-14117 also decreased the apomorphine-induced ipsilateral rotational response in unilaterally QA-lesioned animals by about 70% (p<0.05). In addition, OPC-14117 pretreatment inhibited QA-induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Western blot analysis and electrophoresis mobility shift assay further revealed that the free radical scavenger (300 and 600 mg/kg) blunted the QA-induced degradation of IkappaBalpha (increased IkappaBalpha levels from about 15% to 33 and 62% of control, respectively; p<0.01) as well as the ensuing activation of NF-kappaB by 25 to 34%, respectively (p<0. 01) and the augmentation in c-Myc (35 to 70%, respectively) and p53 expression by 50-80%, respectively (both p<0.01). In contrast, OPC-14117 had no significant effect on the QA-induced increase in AP-1 binding activity. These results suggest that the NMDA receptor-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species contributes to the QA-induced activation of NF-kappaB and further that orally administered OPC-14117 partially protects against excitotoxin-induced apoptosis of striatal neurons through inhibition of the NF-kappaB apoptotic cascade.Molecular Brain Research 01/1999; 64(1):59-68. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Superoxide dismutase reduces injury in many disease processes, implicating superoxide anion radical (O2-.) as a toxic species in vivo. A critical target of superoxide may be nitric oxide (NO.) produced by endothelium, macrophages, neutrophils, and brain synaptosomes. Superoxide and NO. are known to rapidly react to form the stable peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-). We have shown that peroxynitrite has a pKa of 7.49 +/- 0.06 at 37 degrees C and rapidly decomposes once protonated with a half-life of 1.9 sec at pH 7.4. Peroxynitrite decomposition generates a strong oxidant with reactivity similar to hydroxyl radical, as assessed by the oxidation of deoxyribose or dimethyl sulfoxide. Product yields indicative of hydroxyl radical were 5.1 +/- 0.1% and 24.3 +/- 1.0%, respectively, of added peroxynitrite. Product formation was not affected by the metal chelator diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid, suggesting that iron was not required to catalyze oxidation. In contrast, desferrioxamine was a potent, competitive inhibitor of peroxynitrite-initiated oxidation because of a direct reaction between desferrioxamine and peroxynitrite rather than by iron chelation. We propose that superoxide dismutase may protect vascular tissue stimulated to produce superoxide and NO. under pathological conditions by preventing the formation of peroxynitrite.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/1990; 87(4):1620-4. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that the NF-kappaB transcription factor family may mediate expression of the gene encoding the cytokine-inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). To establish if nitric oxide (NO) could in turn affect activity of NF-kappaB, the ability of NO-donor compounds to influence NF-kappaB DNA binding activity in vitro was investigated. NO-donor compounds sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) both inhibited the DNA binding activity of recombinant NF-kappaB p50 and p65 homodimers and of p50-p65 heterodimers. Inhibition of NF-kappaB p50 DNA binding by NO-donor compounds involved modification of the conserved redox-sensitive C62 residue, as a C62S p50 mutant was significantly more resistant to SNP-mediated inactivation. Non-reducing SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that SNP could inhibit p50 DNA binding by mechanisms other than the formation of intersubunit disulphide bonds involving p50 residue C62. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of a synthetic NF-kappaB p5O peptide containing the C62 residue suggested that NO gas can modify C62 by S-nitrosylation. This study indicates that NO-donors can directly inhibit the DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB family proteins, suggesting that cellular NO provides another control mechanism for modulating the expression of NF-kappaB-responsive genes.Nucleic Acids Research 07/1996; 24(12):2236-42. · 8.28 Impact Factor