SOD1 down-regulates NF-κB and c-Myc expression in mice after transient focal cerebral ischemia
ABSTRACT Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in reperfusion injury after focal cerebral ischemia (FCI). Reactive oxygen species regulate activity of transcription factors like NF-kappaB. The authors investigated the role of ROS in NF-kappaB activity after FCI using transgenic mice that overexpressed human copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and that had reduced infarction volume after FCI. Superoxide dismutase transgenic and wild-type mice were subjected to 1 hour of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and subsequent reperfusion. Immunohistochemistry showed SOD1 overexpression attenuated ischemia-induced NF-kappaB p65 immunoreactivity. Colocalization of NF-kappaB and the neuronal marker, microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), showed that NF-kappaB was up-regulated in neurons after FCI. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that SODI overexpression reduced ischemia-induced NF-kappaB DNA binding activity. Supershift assays showed that DNA-protein complexes contained p65 and p50 subunits. Immunoreactivity of c-myc, an NF-kappaB downstream gene, was increased in the ischemic cortex and colocalized with NF-kappaB. Western blotting showed that SOD1 overexpression reduced NF-kappaB and c-Myc protein levels in the ischemic brain. Colocalization of c-Myc and TUNEL staining was observed 24 hours after FCI. The current findings provide the first evidence that SOD1 overexpression attenuates activation of NF-kappaB after transient FCI in mice and that preventing this early activation may block expression of downstream deleterious genes like c-myc, thereby reducing ischemic damage.
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- "Specifically , a substantial and persistent production of these cytokines can significantly increase the risk and extent of brain injury  . For another, NF-κB, an important transcription factor that plays a pivotal role in mediating inflammatory response to proinflammatory cytokines , was also upregulated during cerebral IRI . Similar cerebral IRI-induced inflammation reaction and neural damage were reportedly observed in the hippocampus  . "
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to investigate the neuroprotective effects and relevant mechanism of GW0742, an agonist of PPAR-β, after global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (GCIRI) in rats. The rats showed memory and cognitive impairment and cytomorphological change in the hippocampus neurons following GCIRI. These effects were significantly improved by pretreatment with GW0742 in the dose-dependent manner. The expressions of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were increased after GCIRI, while the increases in these proinflammatory cytokines by GCIRI were inhibited by GW0742 pretreatment. Similarly, GW0742 pretreatment also improved the GCIRI-induced decrease in the expression of IL-10, which can act as an inhibitory cytokine to reduce cerebral ischemic injury. For another, NF-κB p65 expression was significantly increased in hippocampal neurons with apparent nuclear translocation after global cerebral IRI, and these phenomena were also largely attenuated by GW0742 pretreatment. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expressions of PPAR-β were significantly decreased in GCIRI + GW0742 groups when compared with those in GCIRI group. Our data suggests that the PPAR-β agonist GW0742 can exert significant neuroprotective effect against GCIRI in rats via PPAR-β activation and its anti-inflammation effect mediated by the inhibition of expression and activation of NF-κB in the hippocampus.PPAR Research 09/2012; 2012:209794. DOI:10.1155/2012/209794 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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- "These results implied that excessive AMPK activation in vitro is deleterious to SH-SY5Y cells and that Sal A acts to decrease the excessive activation of AMPK, which results in neuroprotection, by relieving acidosis and decreasing apoptotic activation. The actions of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway in cerebral ischemia have been widely reported    "
ABSTRACT: Salvianolic acid A (Sal A) is a polyphenol extracted from the root of the Salvia miltiorrhiza bunge. Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is a major reactive oxygen species (ROS), which has been implicated in stroke and other neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of Sal A in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells against H(2)O(2)-induced injury. Our results showed that cells pretreated with Sal A exhibited enhanced neuronal survival and that this protection was associated with an increase in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the stabilization of mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, Sal A markedly decreased the excessive activation AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the serine-threonine protein kinase, Akt, in SH-SY5Ycells induced by H(2)O(2). In conclusion, our results demonstrated that Sal A protects SH-SY5Y cells against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress and these protective effects are related to stress tolerance and not energy depletion via inhibition of the AMPK and Akt signaling pathway.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2012; 421(3):479-83. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.04.021 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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- "The present study suggests that, ROS and RNS produced by ammonia stimulate the intrinsic activity of MMPs in the EC of the cerebral microvessels as well (Fig. 4A,B). While the mechanism by which ONS generated by ammonia activates MMPs in RBE-4 cells remains to be studied in detail, it is likely analogous to that in other CNS cells and includes i) direct activation of pro-MMPs by nitrosylation (Gu et al. 2002) or oxidation (Meli et al. 2003) and/or ii) increased expression of MMPs in response to inflammation (Huang et al., 2001). Nitrosylation and oxidation appear to be directly linked to the observations of the present study, because excess ammonia stimulates nitration and nitrosylation of amino acid residues (mostly of tyrosine or serine) in different CNS proteins (Häussinger et al. 2005). "
ABSTRACT: Ammonia is responsible for cerebral edema associated with acute liver failure, but the role of the vasogenic mechanism has been a matter of dispute. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ammonia induces changes in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability by a mechanism coupled to oxidative/nitrosative stress (ONS) evoked in the BBB-forming cerebral capillary endothelial cells. Treatment of a rat brain endothelial cell line with ammonia (5 mmol/L, 24 h) caused accumulation of ONS markers: reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and peroxidation products of phospholipid-bound arachidonic acid, F2-isoprostanes. Concurrently, ammonia increased the activity of extracellular matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2/MMP-9), increased cell permeability to fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (40 kDa), and increased the expression of y+LAT2, a transporter that mediates the uptake to the cells of the nitric oxide precursor, arginine. The increase of cell permeability was ameliorated upon co-treatment with a MMP inhibitor, SB-3CT and with an antioxidant, glutathione diethyl ester, which also reduced F2-isoprostanes. Ammonia-induced ONS was attenuated by cytoprotective agents l-ornithine, phenylbutyrate, and their conjugate l-ornithine phenylbutyrate, an ammonia-trapping drug used to treat hyperammonemia. The results support the concept that ONS and ONS-related activation of MMPs in cerebral capillary endothelial cells contribute to the alterations in BBB permeability and to the vasogenic component of cerebral edema associated with acute liver failure.Journal of Neurochemistry 01/2012; 121(1):125-34. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2012.07669.x · 4.24 Impact Factor