History of intraoperative ultrasound in neurosurgery.
ABSTRACT This article chronicles the development of real-time ultrasound for use in operations in the central nervous system. Described are the technology and the various applications of ultrasound in the neurosurgical operating room. The use of real-time ultrasound to localize, characterize, and instrument lesions of the brain and spinal chord are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: The present study evaluates the effectiveness of an ultrasound (US) practice course based on a sheep brain cadaver. Neurosurgical education is considerably restrained following patient safety objections and work time restrictions. It is therefore of vital importance to offer residents an opportunity to practice certain US techniques in a controlled environment without ethical or legal restrictions. We developed an US training model based on a sheep brain cadaver in order to demonstrate the feasibility of such a model, facilitate crucial anatomic knowledge, and demonstrate a learning curve from it. Over the course of 2 months from December 2012-January 2013, a total of 13 residents took part in a three part training session, each consisting of 20-30 min of individual US-training and performance evaluation based on a biological phantom. The first cadaver was a physiologic sheep brain. After initial familiarization with the US, the residents performed an US on a second cadaveric brain and tried to find a 0.5 cm big (in diameter) echogenic structure. In a third brain they were asked to identify a cyst (Fogarty catheter filled with water). Thirteen neurosurgical residents participated in the study. After the first training session, the learning curve improved significantly in the second and the third session. The ability to actuate the US device, the time needed to display crucial anatomic landmarks, and to locate the two different artificial masses increased, and respectively decreased remarkably by up to 80%. After 2 months and three training sessions, the handling of the US from the residents was excellent in the operating room. The accuracy and the dexterity in use of the US improved significantly. The participants found the model to be realistic and agreed on the need for further promotion of such courses.Surgical Neurology International 01/2014; 5:46. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Intraoperative imaging is increasingly being used in resection of brain tumors. Navigable three-dimensional (3D)-ultrasound is a novel tool for planning and guiding such resections. We review our experience with this system and analyze our initial results, especially with respect to malignant gliomas. A prospective database for all patients undergoing sononavigation-guided surgery at our center since this surgery's introduction in June 2011 was queried to retrieve clinical data and technical parameters. Imaging was reviewed to categorize tumors based on enhancement and resectability. Extent of resection was also assessed. Ninety cases were operated and included in this analysis, 75 % being gliomas. The 3D ultrasound mode was used in 87 % cases (alone in 40, and combined in 38 cases). Use of combined mode function [ultrasound (US) with magnetic resonance (MR) images] facilitated orientation of anatomical data. Intraoperative power Doppler angiography was used in one-third of the cases, and was extremely beneficial in delineating the vascular anatomy in real-time. Mean duration of surgery was 4.4 hours. Image resolution was good or moderate in about 88 % cases. The use of the intraoperative imaging prompted further resection in 59 % cases. In the malignant gliomas (51 cases), gross-total resection was achieved in 47 % cases, increasing to 88 % in the "resectable" subgroup. Navigable 3D US is a versatile, useful and reliable intraoperative imaging tool in resection of brain tumors, especially in resource-constrained settings where Intraoperative MR (IOMR) is not available. It has multiple functionalities that can be tailored to suit the procedure and the experience of the surgeon.Acta Neurochirurgica 09/2013; · 1.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The registration of intraoperative ultrasound (US) images with preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images is a challenging problem due to the difference of information contained in each image modality. To overcome this difficulty, we introduce a new probabilistic function based on the matching of cerebral hyperechogenic structures. In brain imaging, these structures are the liquid interfaces such as the cerebral falx and the sulci, and the lesions when the corresponding tissue is hyperechogenic. The registration procedure is achieved by maximizing the joint probability for a voxel to be included in hyperechogenic structures in both modalities. Experiments were carried out on real datasets acquired during neurosurgical procedures. The proposed validation framework is based on (i) visual assessment, (ii) manual expert estimations , and (iii) a robustness study. Results show that the proposed method (i) is visually efficient, (ii) produces no statistically different registration accuracy compared to manual-based expert registration, and (iii) converges robustly. Finally, the computation time required by our method is compatible with intraoperative use.International Journal of Biomedical Imaging 01/2012; 2012:531319.