Identification of effective retinoids for inhibiting growth and inducing apoptosis in bladder cancer cells

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas, Medical School, Houston, Texas, USA.
The Journal of Urology (Impact Factor: 4.47). 04/2001; 165(3):986-92. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-5347(05)66589-5
Source: PubMed


Retinoids modulate the growth and differentiation of normal and malignant epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo, and inhibit bladder carcinogenesis in animal models. Retinoid analogs have been used in several clinical chemoprevention trials of superficial bladder cancer recurrence. There is a clear need to identify new effective retinoids and develop novel approaches for the chemoprevention and treatment of superficial bladder cancer. We investigated the effects of various retinoids on growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in bladder cancer cell lines.
Ten grades 1 to 3 bladder cancer cell lines and the 4 retinoids all-trans-retinoic acid, 9-cis retinoic acid, 4-(N-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4HPR) and LGD1069 were used in the study. We compared the ability of these retinoids to inhibit growth, induce apoptosis, affect the expression of nuclear retinoid receptors and modulate apoptosis related genes.
Most bladder cancer cell lines did not express retinoic acid receptor beta and were resistant to the effect of all-trans-retinoic acid and 9-cis retinoic acid on growth inhibition and apoptosis induction, even at a concentration of 10(-5) M. The 2 cell lines that expressed retinoic acid receptor beta were constitutively sensitive to the growth inhibitory effect of all-trans-retinoic acid. 4HPR inhibited cell growth by about 90% in all but 1 cell line and induced apoptosis at a concentration of 10(-5) M after a 24-hour treatment. LGD1069 had virtually no effect. All-trans-retinoic acid and 4HPR induced retinoic acid receptor beta expression in 1 bladder cancer cell line. However, the effect of 4HPR on cell growth and apoptosis were not related to the constitutive expression of retinoic acid receptor beta. 4HPR decreased bcl-2 expression in 6 of 8 bladder cancer cell lines but did not change p53 gene expression.
The results demonstrate that 4HPR is the most potent growth inhibitor and apoptosis inducer of the retinoids tested. Lack of retinoic acid receptor beta expression may be responsible for cell resistance to all-trans-retinoic acid but not to the other retinoids.

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    • "The results from our previous study suggested that ACME possesses protective antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities.[12] In addition several researchers have reported that antioxidants, such as retinoids and vitamin E, produce genetic changes that cause apoptosis in cancer cells by mechanisms other than antioxidant effect.[17,18] Our phytochemical study suggests that ACME has abundant amount of carbohydrates, alkaloids, tannins and ascorbate. "
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    ABSTRACT: The heartwood extract of A. catechu, called pale catechu or "Katha" in Hindi has been widely used in traditional Indian medicinal system. Although various pharmacological properties of this plant had been reported previously, only a few were concerned with the anticancer activity of this plant. The objective was to assess the in vitro anticancer and apoptosis inducing effect of 70% methanolic extract of "Katha" (ACME) on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7). MCF-7 cell line was treated with increasing concentrations of ACME and cell viability was calculated. Flow cytometric methods were used to confirm the apoptosis promoting role of ACME. Morphological changes were then analysed using confocal microscopy. Western blotting was then performed to investigate the expression of apoptogenic proteins and to analyse the activation of caspases. ACME showed significant cytotoxicity to MCF-7 cells with an IC50 value of 288.85 ± 25.79 μg/ml. Flow cytometric analysis and morphological studies confirmed that ACME is able to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, immunoblot results suggested the pathway of apoptosis induction by increasing Bax/Bcl-2 ratio which results in the activation of caspase-cascade and ultimately leads to the cleavage of Poly adeno ribose polymerase (PARP). These results provide the evidence that ACME is able to inhibit the proliferation of MCF-7 cells by inducing apoptosis through intrinsic pathway.
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    • "Although N. retusa extracts should contain some antioxidant entities (revealed by antiradical properties of the same N. retusa extracts against several free radicals; data not shown), we believe that this dual property, reported also in other works [37] is not in contradiction with our aforementioned deduction, as several researchers have shown that antioxidants, such as retinoids and vitamin E, produce genetic changes that cause apoptosis in cancer cells by mechanisms other than a direct antioxidant effect [38]. "
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: In this report the phytochemical profile of Nitraria. Retusa (N. Retusa) leaf extracts were identified and their ability to induce apoptosis in human chronic myelogenous erythroleukaemia (K562) was evaluated. Apoptosis of the human chronic myelogenous erythroleukaemia (K562) was evidenced by investigating DNA fragmentation, PARP cleavage and caspases 3 and 8 inducing activities, in the presence of N. retusa extracts. Our study revealed that the tested extracts from N. Retusa contain many useful bioactive compounds. They induced in a time-dependent manner the apoptosis the tested cancerous our cell line. This result was confirmed by ladder DNA fragmentation profile and PARP cleavage, as well as a release in caspase-3 and caspase-8 level. Our results indicate that the tested compounds have a significant antiproliferative effect which may be due to their involvement in the induction of the extrinsic apoptosic pathway.
    Cancer Cell International 10/2011; 11(1):37. DOI:10.1186/1475-2867-11-37 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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