Identification of effective retinoids for inhibiting growth and inducing apoptosis in bladder cancer cells.
ABSTRACT Retinoids modulate the growth and differentiation of normal and malignant epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo, and inhibit bladder carcinogenesis in animal models. Retinoid analogs have been used in several clinical chemoprevention trials of superficial bladder cancer recurrence. There is a clear need to identify new effective retinoids and develop novel approaches for the chemoprevention and treatment of superficial bladder cancer. We investigated the effects of various retinoids on growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in bladder cancer cell lines.
Ten grades 1 to 3 bladder cancer cell lines and the 4 retinoids all-trans-retinoic acid, 9-cis retinoic acid, 4-(N-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4HPR) and LGD1069 were used in the study. We compared the ability of these retinoids to inhibit growth, induce apoptosis, affect the expression of nuclear retinoid receptors and modulate apoptosis related genes.
Most bladder cancer cell lines did not express retinoic acid receptor beta and were resistant to the effect of all-trans-retinoic acid and 9-cis retinoic acid on growth inhibition and apoptosis induction, even at a concentration of 10(-5) M. The 2 cell lines that expressed retinoic acid receptor beta were constitutively sensitive to the growth inhibitory effect of all-trans-retinoic acid. 4HPR inhibited cell growth by about 90% in all but 1 cell line and induced apoptosis at a concentration of 10(-5) M after a 24-hour treatment. LGD1069 had virtually no effect. All-trans-retinoic acid and 4HPR induced retinoic acid receptor beta expression in 1 bladder cancer cell line. However, the effect of 4HPR on cell growth and apoptosis were not related to the constitutive expression of retinoic acid receptor beta. 4HPR decreased bcl-2 expression in 6 of 8 bladder cancer cell lines but did not change p53 gene expression.
The results demonstrate that 4HPR is the most potent growth inhibitor and apoptosis inducer of the retinoids tested. Lack of retinoic acid receptor beta expression may be responsible for cell resistance to all-trans-retinoic acid but not to the other retinoids.
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ABSTRACT: Differentiation is defined as the ability of a cell to acquire full functional behavior. For instance, the function of bladder urothelium is to act as a barrier to the diffusion of solutes into or out of the urine after excretion by the kidney. The urothelium also serves to protect the detrusor muscle from toxins present in stored urine. A major event in the initiation and progression of bladder cancer is loss of urothelial differentiation. This is important because less differentiated urothelial tumors (higher histologic tumor grade) are typically associated with increased biologic and clinical aggressiveness. The differentiation status of urothelial carcinomas can be assessed by histopathologic examination and is reflected in the assignment of a histologic grade (low-grade or high-grade). Although typically limited to morphologic evaluation in most routine diagnostic practices, tumor grade can also be assessed using biochemical markers. Indeed, current pathological analysis of tumor specimens is increasingly reliant on molecular phenotyping. Thus, high priorities for bladder cancer research include identification of (1) biomarkers that will enable the identification of high grade T1 tumors that pose the most threat and require the most aggressive treatment; (2) biomarkers that predict the likelihood that a low grade, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage pTa bladder tumor will progress into an invasive carcinoma with metastatic potential; (3) biomarkers that indicate which pTa tumors are most likely to recur, thus enabling clinicians to prospectively identify patients who require aggressive treatment; and (4) how these markers might contribute to biological processes that underlie tumor progression and metastasis, potentially through loss of terminal differentiation. This review will discuss the proteins associated with urothelial cell differentiation, with a focus on those implicated in bladder cancer, and other proteins that may be involved in neoplastic progression. It is hoped that ongoing discoveries associated with the study of these differentiation-promoting proteins can be translated into the clinic to positively impact patient care.Urologic Oncology 09/2011; · 3.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The possible biochemical activities of the acetonic/ethanolic extract of the leaves of Maytenus procumbens (L.M.P), and its isolated compounds were investigated in the present study. In cytotoxicity assay, L.M.P showed IC(50) of 68.79, 51.22, 78.49, 76.59, and 76.64μg/ml on Caco-2, HeLa, HT29, NIH3T3, and T47D cells, respectively. Bioassay guided fractionation led to the isolation and identification of a new triterpene: '30-hydroxy-11α-methoxy-18β-olean-12-en-3-one' (HMO) in addition to a known terpenoid: 'asiatic acid' (AA). HMO exhibited the most cytotoxicity against HeLa cells and was further investigated for its ability to induce apoptosis in HeLa cells. HMO induced apoptosis up to 20.41% in HeLa cells versus control group (0.40%). Antioxidant/oxidative properties of L.M.P and HMO were investigated using extracellular (DPPH), and intracellular (ROS) assays. Experimental samples represented a time and concentration-dependent formation of ROS in Hela cells. Generation of ROS seems one of the mechanisms by which HMO induces apoptosis in Hela cells. Conclusion is that the active components in L.M.P might serve as a mediator of the ROS scavenging system and have the potential to act as prooxidant or antioxidant depending on the biological environment of the cells.Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 09/2012; 51C:38-45. · 2.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The heartwood extract of A. catechu, called pale catechu or "Katha" in Hindi has been widely used in traditional Indian medicinal system. Although various pharmacological properties of this plant had been reported previously, only a few were concerned with the anticancer activity of this plant. The objective was to assess the in vitro anticancer and apoptosis inducing effect of 70% methanolic extract of "Katha" (ACME) on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7). MCF-7 cell line was treated with increasing concentrations of ACME and cell viability was calculated. Flow cytometric methods were used to confirm the apoptosis promoting role of ACME. Morphological changes were then analysed using confocal microscopy. Western blotting was then performed to investigate the expression of apoptogenic proteins and to analyse the activation of caspases. ACME showed significant cytotoxicity to MCF-7 cells with an IC50 value of 288.85 ± 25.79 μg/ml. Flow cytometric analysis and morphological studies confirmed that ACME is able to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, immunoblot results suggested the pathway of apoptosis induction by increasing Bax/Bcl-2 ratio which results in the activation of caspase-cascade and ultimately leads to the cleavage of Poly adeno ribose polymerase (PARP). These results provide the evidence that ACME is able to inhibit the proliferation of MCF-7 cells by inducing apoptosis through intrinsic pathway.Pharmacognosy Magazine 01/2014; 10(37):27-33. · 1.53 Impact Factor