Auracyanin B, one of two similar blue copper proteins produced by the thermophilic green non-sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus, crystallizes in space group P6(4)22 (a=b=115.7 A, c=54.6 A). The structure was solved using multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion data recorded about the CuK absorption edge, and was refined at 1.55 A resolution. The molecular model comprises 139 amino acid residues, one Cu, 247 H(2)O molecules, one Cl(-) and two SO(4)(2-). The final residual and estimated standard uncertainties are R=0.198, ESU=0.076 A for atomic coordinates and ESU=0.05 A for Cu---ligand bond lengths, respectively. The auracyanin B molecule has a standard cupredoxin fold. With the exception of an additional N-terminal strand, the molecule is very similar to that of the bacterial cupredoxin, azurin. As in other cupredoxins, one of the Cu ligands lies on strand 4 of the polypeptide, and the other three lie along a large loop between strands 7 and 8. The Cu site geometry is discussed with reference to the amino acid spacing between the latter three ligands. The crystallographically characterized Cu-binding domain of auracyanin B is probably tethered to the periplasmic side of the cytoplasmic membrane by an N-terminal tail that exhibits significant sequence identity with known tethers in several other membrane-associated electron-transfer proteins.
"The type I blue copper protein auracyanin, which has a single copper atom coordinated by two histidine, one cysteine and one methionine residues at the active site, is proposed to participate in the electron transfer from ACIII to the reaction center in Cfl. aurantiacus [35,47-49], and it has also been recently characterized in Roseiflexus castenholzii . Additionally, an auracyanin gene (trd_0373) has been identified in the genome of the non-photosynthetic bacterium Thermomicrobium roseum DSM 5159, which is evolutionally related to Cfl. aurantiacus . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chloroflexus aurantiacus is a thermophilic filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic (FAP) bacterium, and can grow phototrophically under anaerobic conditions or chemotrophically under aerobic and dark conditions. According to 16S rRNA analysis, Chloroflexi species are the earliest branching bacteria capable of photosynthesis, and Cfl. aurantiacus has been long regarded as a key organism to resolve the obscurity of the origin and early evolution of photosynthesis. Cfl. aurantiacus contains a chimeric photosystem that comprises some characters of green sulfur bacteria and purple photosynthetic bacteria, and also has some unique electron transport proteins compared to other photosynthetic bacteria.
The complete genomic sequence of Cfl. aurantiacus has been determined, analyzed and compared to the genomes of other photosynthetic bacteria.
Abundant genomic evidence suggests that there have been numerous gene adaptations/replacements in Cfl. aurantiacus to facilitate life under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions, including duplicate genes and gene clusters for the alternative complex III (ACIII), auracyanin and NADH:quinone oxidoreductase; and several aerobic/anaerobic enzyme pairs in central carbon metabolism and tetrapyrroles and nucleic acids biosynthesis. Overall, genomic information is consistent with a high tolerance for oxygen that has been reported in the growth of Cfl. aurantiacus. Genes for the chimeric photosystem, photosynthetic electron transport chain, the 3-hydroxypropionate autotrophic carbon fixation cycle, CO2-anaplerotic pathways, glyoxylate cycle, and sulfur reduction pathway are present. The central carbon metabolism and sulfur assimilation pathways in Cfl. aurantiacus are discussed. Some features of the Cfl. aurantiacus genome are compared with those of the Roseiflexus castenholzii genome. Roseiflexus castenholzii is a recently characterized FAP bacterium and phylogenetically closely related to Cfl. aurantiacus. According to previous reports and the genomic information, perspectives of Cfl. aurantiacus in the evolution of photosynthesis are also discussed.
The genomic analyses presented in this report, along with previous physiological, ecological and biochemical studies, indicate that the anoxygenic phototroph Cfl. aurantiacus has many interesting and certain unique features in its metabolic pathways. The complete genome may also shed light on possible evolutionary connections of photosynthesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The thermodynamic parameters of the conformational transition occurring at low pH (acid transition, AT) in blue copper proteins, involving protonation and detachment from the Cu(I) ion of one histidine ligand, have been determined electrochemically for spinach and cucumber plastocyanins, Rhus vernicifera stellacyanin, cucumber basic protein (CBP), and Paracoccus versutus amicyanin. These data were obtained from direct protein electrochemistry experiments carried out at varying pH and temperature. For all species but CBP, the overall conformational change turns out to be exothermic. The entropy change is remarkably species-dependent. In particular, we found that (i) the balance of bond breaking/formation favors the acid transition in plastocyanins, which show remarkably negative DeltaH degrees '(AT) values, and (ii) the transition enthalpy turns out to be much less negative (or even positive) for the two phytocyanins (stellacyanin and CBP): for these species, the transition turns out to be observable thanks to the favorable (positive) entropy change. Thus, it is apparent that the thermodynamic "driving force" for this transition is enthalpic for the plastocyanins and entropic for the phytocyanins. Amicyanin is an intermediate case in which both enthalpic and entropic terms favor the transition. Under the assumption that the transition entropy originates from solvent reorganization effects, which are known to involve compensative enthalpy and entropy changes, the free energy change of the transition would also correspond to the enthalpy change due to bond breaking/formation in the first coordination sphere of the metal and in its immediate environment. Indeed, this term turns out to be very similar for the proteins investigated, in line with the conservation of the Cu(I)-His bond strengths in these species, except for amicyanin, for which the greater exothermicity of the transition can be ascribed to peculiar features of the active site.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research on photosynthetic electron transfer closely parallels that of other electron transfer pathways and in many cases they overlap. Thus, the first bacterial cytochrome to be characterized, called cytochrome c (2), is commonly found in non-sulfur purple photosynthetic bacteria and is a close homolog of mitochondrial cytochrome c. The cytochrome bc (1) complex is an integral part of photosynthetic electron transfer yet, like cytochrome c (2), was first recognized as a respiratory component. Cytochromes c (2) mediate electron transfer between the cytochrome bc (1) complex and photosynthetic reaction centers and cytochrome a-type oxidases. Not all photosynthetic bacteria contain cytochrome c (2); instead it is thought that HiPIP, auracyanin, Halorhodospira cytochrome c551, Chlorobium cytochrome c555, and cytochrome c (8) may function in a similar manner as photosynthetic electron carriers between the cytochrome bc (1) complex and reaction centers. More often than not, the soluble or periplasmic mediators do not interact directly with the reaction center bacteriochlorophyll, but require the presence of membrane-bound intermediates: a tetraheme cytochrome c in purple bacteria and a monoheme cytochrome c in green bacteria. Cyclic electron transfer in photosynthesis requires that the redox potential of the system be delicately poised for optimum efficiency. In fact, lack of redox poise may be one of the defects in the aerobic phototrophic bacteria. Thus, large concentrations of cytochromes c (2) and c' may additionally poise the redox potential of the cyclic photosystem of purple bacteria. Other cytochromes, such as flavocytochrome c (FCSD or SoxEF) and cytochrome c551 (SoxA), may feed electrons from sulfide, sulfur, and thiosulfate into the photosynthetic pathways via the same soluble carriers as are part of the cyclic system.
Photosynthesis Research 02/2003; 76(1-3):111-26. DOI:10.1023/A:1024910323089 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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