Amyloid beta-peptide disrupts mitochondrial membrane lipid and protein structure: protective role of tauroursodeoxycholate.
ABSTRACT Mitochondria have been implicated in the cytotoxicity of amyloid beta-peptide (A beta), which accumulates as senile plaques in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. Tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC) modulates cell death, in part, by preventing mitochondrial membrane perturbation. Using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis of isolated mitochondria, we tested the hypothesis that A beta acts locally in mitochondrial membranes to induce oxidative injury, leading to increased membrane permeability and subsequent release of caspase-activating factors. Further, we intended to determine the role of TUDC at preventing A beta-induced mitochondrial membrane dysfunction. The results demonstrate oxidative injury of mitochondrial membranes during exposure to A beta and reveal profound structural changes, including modified membrane lipid polarity and disrupted protein mobility. Cytochrome c is released from the intermembrane space of mitochondria as a consequence of increased membrane permeability. TUDC, but not cyclosporine A, almost completely abrogated A beta-induced perturbation of mitochondrial membrane structure. We conclude that A beta directly induces cytochrome c release from mitochondria through a mechanism that is accompanied by profound effects on mitochondrial membrane redox status, lipid polarity, and protein order. TUDC can directly suppress A beta-induced disruption of the mitochondrial membrane structure, suggesting a neuroprotective role for this bile salt.
Article: Chemical chaperone TUDCA preserves cone photoreceptors in a mouse model of Leber congenital amaurosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mutations in either retinoid isomerase (RPE65) or lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) lead to Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). By using the Lrat(-/-) mouse model, previous studies have shown that the rapid cone degeneration in LCA was caused by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by S-opsin aggregation. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of an ER chemical chaperone, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), in preserving cones in the Lrat(-/-) model. Lrat(-/-) mice were systemically administered with TUDCA and vehicle (0.15 M NaHCO(3)) every 3 days from P9 to P28. Cone cell survival was determined by counting cone cells on flat-mounted retinas. The expression and subcellular localization of cone-specific proteins were analyzed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively. TUDCA treatment reduced ER stress and apoptosis in Lrat(-/-) retina. It significantly slowed down cone degeneration in Lrat(-/-) mice, resulting in a ∼3-fold increase in cone density in the ventral and central retina as compared with the vehicle-treated mice at P28. Furthermore, TUDCA promoted the degradation of cone membrane-associated proteins by enhancing the ER-associated protein degradation pathway. Systemic injection of TUDCA is effective in reducing ER stress, preventing apoptosis, and preserving cones in Lrat(-/-) mice. TUDCA has the potential to lead to the development of a new class of therapeutic drugs for treating LCA.Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 04/2012; 53(7):3349-56. · 3.43 Impact Factor
Article: Antioxidant role of amyloid β protein in cell-free and biological systems: implication for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In contrast to many studies showing the pro-oxidative nature of amyloid peptide, this work shows that aggregated Aβ42 peptide in varying concentrations (2-20μM) in cell-free systems inhibits the formation of hydroxyl radicals and H(2)O(2) from a mixture of iron (20μM FeSO(4)) and ascorbate (2mM) as measured by benzoate hydroxylation assay and coumarin carboxylic acid assay. Aggregated Aβ42 in similar concentrations further prevents protein and lipid oxidation in isolated rat brain mitochondria incubated alone or with FeSO(4) and ascorbate. Moreover, mitochondria exposed to FeSO(4) and ascorbate show enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species and this phenomenon is also abolished by aggregated Aβ42. It is suggested that the antioxidant property of Aβ42 in various systems is mediated by metal chelation and it is nearly as potent as a typical metal chelator, such as diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, in preventing oxidative damage. However, aggregated Aβ42 causes mitochondrial functional impairment in the form of membrane depolarization and a loss of phosphorylation capacity without involving reactive oxygen species in the process. Thus, the present results suggest that the amyloid peptide exhibits a protective antioxidant role in biological systems, but also has toxic actions independent of oxidative stress.Free radical biology & medicine 10/2012; · 5.42 Impact Factor
Article: Changes in hepatic gene expression upon oral administration of taurine-conjugated ursodeoxycholic acid in ob/ob mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent and associated with considerable morbidities. Unfortunately, there is no currently available drug established to treat NAFLD. It was recently reported that intraperitoneal administration of taurine-conjugated ursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) improved hepatic steatosis in ob/ob mice. We hereby examined the effect of oral TUDCA treatment on hepatic steatosis and associated changes in hepatic gene expression in ob/ob mice. We administered TUDCA to ob/ob mice at a dose of 500 mg/kg twice a day by gastric gavage for 3 weeks. Body weight, glucose homeostasis, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and hepatic gene expression were examined in comparison with control ob/ob mice and normal littermate C57BL/6J mice. Compared to the control ob/ob mice, TUDCA treated ob/ob mice revealed markedly reduced liver fat stained by oil red O (44.2±5.8% vs. 21.1±10.4%, P<0.05), whereas there was no difference in body weight, oral glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and ER stress. Microarray analysis of hepatic gene expression demonstrated that oral TUDCA treatment mainly decreased the expression of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis among the components of lipid homeostasis. At pathway levels, oral TUDCA altered the genes regulating amino acid, carbohydrate, and drug metabolism in addition to lipid metabolism. In summary, oral TUDCA treatment decreased hepatic steatosis in ob/ob mice by cooperative regulation of multiple metabolic pathways, particularly by reducing the expression of genes known to regulate de novo lipogenesis.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(11):e13858. · 4.09 Impact Factor