A profile of methylphenidate exposures.
ABSTRACT Methylphenidate is prescribed commonly for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. An estimated 2.8% of US youths aged 5 to 18 years use it for the management of this disorder. Despite the widespread use of methylphenidate, the demographics and outcome of intentional and unintentional exposures to methylphenidate have not been described.
To profile human exposures to methylphenidate, a retrospective review of all reports to a certified regional poison information center during 1998 was conducted. Data analysis included patient demographics, reason for the exposure, dose ingested, clinical effects, and patient outcome.
There were 113 methylphenidate human exposures. The following table summarizes the values for selected parameters that were investigated: [table in text]
The majority of exposures in children < or = 12 years of age involved unintentional ingestion of a sibling's medication, self-administration of an excessive therapeutic dose, or the administration of an inadvertent dose given by a caregiver. Methylphenidate abuse was common among adolescents and adults. Regardless of the reason for the exposure, the amount ingested, or treatment, all exposures had a favorable outcome. Pediatric doses of less than 1 mg/kg were not associated with adverse events.
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ABSTRACT: To determine the past-year medical misuse prevalence for 4 controlled medication classes (pain, stimulant, sleeping, and antianxiety) among adolescents, and to assess substance use outcomes among adolescents who report medical misuse. A Web-based survey was self-administered by 2744 secondary school students in 2009-2010. Two southeastern Michigan school districts. The sample had a mean age of 14.8 years and was 51.1% female. The racial/ethnic distribution was 65.0% white, 29.5% African American, 3.7% Asian, 1.3% Hispanic, and 0.5% other. Past-year medical use and misuse of 4 controlled medication classes. Eighteen percent of the sample reported past-year medical use of at least 1 prescribed controlled medication. Among past-year medical users, 22.0% reported misuse of their controlled medications, including taking too much, intentionally getting high, or using to increase alcohol or other drug effects. Medical misusers were more likely than nonmisusers to divert their controlled medications and to abuse other substances. The odds of a positive screening result for drug abuse were substantially higher among medical misusers (adjusted odds ratio, 7.8; 95% confidence interval, 4.3-14.2) compared with medical users who used their controlled medications appropriately. The odds of drug abuse did not differ between medical users who used their controlled medications appropriately and nonusers. Most adolescents who used controlled medications took their medications appropriately. Substance use and diversion of controlled medications were more prevalent among adolescents who misused their controlled medications. Careful therapeutic monitoring could reduce medical misuse and diversion of controlled medications among adolescents.Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine 08/2011; 165(8):729-35. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We tested the hypothesis that C57BL/6J mice will model human metabolic interactions between dl-methylphenidate (MPH) and ethanol, placing an emphasis on the MPH transdermal system (MTS). Specifically, we asked: (1) will ethanol increase d-MPH biological concentrations, (2) will MTS facilitate the systemic bioavailability of l-MPH, and (3) will l-MPH enantioselectively interact with ethanol to yield l-ethylphenidate (l-EPH)? Mice were dosed with MTS (¼ of a 12.5 cm2 patch on shaved skin) or a comparable oral dl-MPH dose (7.5 mg/kg), with or without ethanol (3.0 g/kg), and then placed in metabolic cages for 3 h. MPH and EPH isomer concentrations in blood, brain, and urine were analyzed by gas chromatographic–mass spectrometry monitoring of N-(S)-prolylpiperidyl fragments. As in humans, MTS greatly facilitated the absorption of l-MPH in this mouse strain. Similarly, ethanol led to the enantioselective formation of l-EPH and to an elevation in d-MPH concentrations with both MTS and oral MPH. Although only guarded comparisons between MTS and oral MPH can be made due to route-dependent drug absorption rate differences, MTS was associated with significant MPH–ethanol interactions. Ethanol-mediated increases in circulating concentrations of d-MPH carry toxicological and abuse liability implications should this animal model hold for ethanol-consuming attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder patients or coabusers. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 100:2966–2978, 2011Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 06/2011; 100(7):2966 - 2978. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As prescriptions for stimulant medication to treat ADHD have increased, so have concerns about the nonmedical use and diversion of stimulant medication, especially among college students. There is also growing concern about young adults feigning ADHD in order to receive a prescription for stimulant medication. This paper summarizes recent research on the nonmedical use and diversion of stimulant medication with a focus on the prevalence of these behaviors, motivations for nonmedical use, factors associated with nonmedical use, and the consequences of such use. Research on the medical misuse of prescribed medication and malingering to obtain a diagnosis of ADHD is also discussed.Current Psychiatry Reports 07/2013; 15(7):375. · 3.23 Impact Factor