Immune tolerance by intermittent factor VIII boluses in two high responder hemophilia A patients.
ABSTRACT Immune tolerance (IT) in hemophilia A patients with anti-factor VIII antibodies is generally based on daily factor VIII administrations. Here we report the preliminary results of an immune tolerance regimen based on recombinant high-dose (400 U/kg) factor VIII boluses administered at 48-hour intervals. Two high responder hemophilia A patients aged 2 and 3 years received this treatment without the need of permanent venous access. In both cases the IT regimen caused an anamnestic response of less than three weeks' duration and an antibody reduction to less than 5 Bethesda units was achieved in about 8-10 weeks. In the child with a more prolonged follow-up the inhibitor became undetectable after four months and factor VIII recovery at 6 months was > 85%. This intermittent high-dose regimen seems to be effective in rapidly inducing immune tolerance and seems particularly suitable for very young children in whom it may be useful to avoid the risks and to reduce the psychological burden of permanent venous access.
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ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is a focal inflammatory disease of the arterial wall. It starts with the formation of fatty streaks on the arterial wall that evolve to form a raised plaque made of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and infiltrating leukocytes surrounding a necrotic core. The pathogenesis of the atherosclerotic lesion is incompletely understood, but it is clear that a dysfunction of the endothelium, recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells and SMC proliferation have a pivotal role. Over recent years receptors for extracellular nucleotides, the P2 receptors, have been recognized as fundamental modulators of leukocytes, platelets, SMCs and endothelial cells. P2 receptors mediate chemotaxis, cytokine secretion, NO generation, platelet aggregation and cell proliferation in response to accumulation of nucleotides into the extracellular milieu. Clinical trials have shown the benefit of antagonists of the ADP platelet receptor(s) in the prevention of vascular accidents in patients with atherosclerosis. Therefore, we anticipate that a deeper understanding of the involvement of P2 receptors in atheroma formation will open new avenues for drug design and therapeutic intervention.British Journal of Pharmacology 03/2002; 135(4):831-42. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to characterize the pharmacological profile of the P2Y(12) receptor for several adenine triphosphate nucleotides in view of their possible roles as partial agonists or true antagonists. Two distinct cellular systems were used: P2Y(1) receptor deficient mouse platelets ( platelets) previously shown to express a native and functional P2Y(12) receptor and 1321 N1 astrocytoma cells stably expressing the human P2Y(12) receptor (1321 N1 P2Y(12)). ADP and its structural analogues inhibited cAMP accumulation in a dose-dependent manner in both platelets and 1321 N1 P2Y(12) cells with a similar rank order of potency, 2 methylthio-ADP (2MeSADP) >ADP - Adenosine 5'-(betathio) diphosphate (AlphaDPbetaS). Commercial ATP, 2 chloro; ATP (2ClATP) and 2 methylthio-ATP (2MeSATP) also inhibited cAMP accumulation in both cell systems. In contrast, after creatine phosphate (CP)/creatine phosphokinase (CPK) regeneration, adenine triphosphate nucleotides lost their agonistic effect on platelets and behaved as antagonists of ADP (0.5 microm)-induced adenylyl cyclase inhibition with IC(50) of 13.5 +/- 4.8, 838 +/- 610, 1280 +/- 1246 microm for 2MeSATP, ATP and 2ClATP, respectively. In 1321 N1 P2Y(12) cells, CP/CPK regenerated ATP and 2ClATP lost their agonistic effect only when CP/CPK was maintained during the cAMP assay. The stable ATP analogue ATPgammaS antagonized ADPbetaS-induced inhibition of cAMP accumulation in both platelets and 1321 N1 P2Y(12) cells. Thus, ATP and its triphosphate analogues are not agonists but rather antagonists at the P2Y(12) receptor expressed in platelets or transfected cells, provided care is taken to remove diphosphate contaminants and to prevent the generation of diphosphate nucleotide derivatives by cell ectonucleotidases.Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 11/2004; 2(11):1980-8. · 6.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ADP and TxA2 are secondary agonists which play an important role as cofactors when platelets are activated by agonists such as collagen or thrombin. The aim of the present study was to characterize the role of the ADP receptor P2Y(1) in collagen-induced activation of washed platelets. Inhibition of P2Y(1) alone with the selective antagonist MRS2179 prolonged the lag phase preceding aggregation in response to low or high concentrations of fibrillar collagen, without affecting the maximum amplitude of aggregation or secretion. A combination of MRS2179 and aspirin resulted in complete inhibition of platelet shape change at low and high collagen concentrations, together with a profound decrease in aggregation and secretion. Scanning electron microscopy showed that these platelets had conserved the discoid morphology typical of the resting state. A lack of shape change was also observed in aspirin-treated P2Y(1)- and G(alphaq)-deficient mouse platelets and in delta-storage pool-deficient platelets from Fawn Hooded rats. In contrast, when the second ADP receptor P2Y(12) was inhibited with AR-C69931MX, aspirin-treated platelets were still able to change shape and displayed only a moderate decrease in aggregation and secretion. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that collagen requires not only the TxA2 receptor Tpalpha, but also P2Y(1), to induce platelet shape change.Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 07/2004; 2(6):969-77. · 6.08 Impact Factor